Research on Music Instruments


a.) The fusion of interactive instruments played by multiple people allows social harmony – by having multiple people play different piece, it brings sounds together and form harmony  in music

b)  The combination of analog and digital works fused together helps to engage wider set of participants (case study below)

c) The traditional instruments will lose significance, but sound produce remains significant. This is because what has changed is the level of ease at playing it where technology can minimize effort to play them.

Case studies

This interactive musical instruents is a university project based around four



Reactable has arang of prodcts that allows users to play around with music and use their creativity to make their own music with sounds beats available. The ones above are Reactable devices – Reactable installation and Reactable Mobile Music App.

This installation invites people to play around with objects that produce sounds and control the way it is being play. With these kids playing around objects, it allows them to learn through experience how to be musically attuned without taking formal lesson in understanding music. This interactivity is instant and requires on the spot learning, where you listen to beat and put different sounds together to ake it coherent. Reactable allows user to have a lot of creativity and control over the sounds produced.


The Wheel Quintet by Voices of Umei, composed by by Composer/ Senior Artistic Lecturer Anders Lind, Department of Creative Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.

Analysis / Critiques or the case Studies

First case study: Reactable by Reactable Systems


Critic/Analysisl study on The Wheel Quintet by Voices of UMEI

“It has clearly
illustrated the potential of mapping digital sound to everyday
objects to stimulate participatory art and both the composition
and performance of music.”

Max/MSP for visual programming

Understand the creation and use of novel interfaces for music composition and performance enabled by digitalization

A key objective in creating the instrument was to
simplify the interactions with the instrument while maintaining high
artistic ambition

“Firstly, their use as musical instruments could provide a means for
enabling people, regardless of their musical backgrounds, to
master the instruments when they first encountered them, and
hence participate.

Secondly, from an artistic perspective, the
absence of performance tradition rooted in everyday objects (as
opposed to, for example, a guitar or a piano) was deemed likely
to inspire and contribute to the development of new musical

wheels and skateboards – signify motion and speed – motion and tempo

most importantly, while highly trained and skilled musicians
are typically required for the performance of musical pieces
with such textures, our observations show that by mapping
digital sound to everyday objects these knowledge barriers can
be overcome”

Altered Ways of doing/Looking at things

  • Museums or other cultural institutions looking to invite more visitors can introducing everyday objects that is digitized – Wheel Quintet projects is an example to show items that we are often familiar with such as skateboard or a bicycle wheel can bridge the gap between certain groups of people that aren’t as oriented towards artistic or musical field – allows more segments of society to be more fluid in appreciation participatory
  • Digital immateriality refers to the
    purely digital aspects of an artifact, such as a file or software that are
    intangible (cannot be touched).

The Next Step / New Trends / Blue Sky Future

Musical instruments traditionally learnt by ear and physical practice will be less popular, replaced by newer technologies that is able to produce a more user friendly interactive piece,

However, the sound output made from musical instruments will be incorporated in music ensemble because its familiarity allows people of non-artistic backgrounds to better appreciate new forms of interactive music. For example, the use of piano where many keys are pressed will be replaced, but the sounds made remain. In addition, the way music instrument is being played, for example with pressing of different keys can inspire other forms of interactive musical piece. Ideally, the sound output can an alternative to piano sounds – as part of new innovation.

A new generation of an art called Participatory Art will be more common in modern-developed places where technology enhances learning and appreciation for music.

MAX/MSP and Arduino was incorporated, which shows how this cost-efficient products can do wonders in adding a new element to Participative Art. This is especially so in large scale cultural places such as museums and concert halls – where sounds produced at a large scale. With added tech element to it, it even enhances the human senses of motions, touch and hearing, which makes the newer forms of art mre captivating!

Museums or other cultural institutions would incorporate interactive musical elements to allow enhanced appreciate that engages people – For eg The Wheel Quintlet  – where mix of voices and sounds fused together

Traditional music will replace technological music -created by people

Participatory art invites a new demographic of people – non tradition artists to be more appreciate of the works of art, as music has been a way that brings people together – as in case studies, the participate nature in appreciating an art piece do not discriminate, encourages a more controlled nature that people can have towards a certain musical sound that is widely produced

Device of the week: IoT in Telemedicine

Internet of Things (IoT) is the idea of physical objects being able to  communicate online and interact with other objects.

.. defined the Internet of Things as “a world where physical objects are seamlessly integrated into the information network, and where the physical objects can become active participants in business processes.”

From my understanding of Telemedicine, it serves as a very efficient way of providing immediate care to people who may need medical assistance but have difficulty travelling to hospital . It allows certain groups of people, for examplem the elderly the fastest care and provide practical help that they need in case of emergency. It acts  like  “virtual hospital”. At the same time, with the use of smartphones or tablets, doctors can deliver medical assistance on-the-go by keeping a tab of the patient’s condition online.

One of the most simplest forms of Telemedicine allows a patient to consult doctor online without being physically present – this can be done through use of Webcam or Skype.

A more advanced version is the use wearable technology that tracks the blood pressure or heart rate of an elderly person that is attached to him/her at all time. This allows information to be transferred to medical professions in hospitals in real time. With the datas of rate of blood pressure or heart allows viewers to keep close eye on someone without being physically present with each other.



Close monitoring of patients even when doctor is away from patient, this is because of the apps ability to keep tracck record of each patient’s condition. This includes,measurement of data vital to patient’s . As such, this allows doctors to keep close eye of any signs that requires immediate medical attention. Allows doctors to make more accurate analysis of patients’ without even needing to visit patients with machines attached to them.

Time and cost efficient – travel costs significantly reduced because both patient can consult doctor through by appearing through communication outlet such as SKYPE with use of WIFI


Requires strong WIFI signal to get ease of communication – without this, difficult to secure consultation, aid needed – this would be difficult for isolated areas where wifi signals are weak or non existent or unaffordable

Telemedicine does not affect travelling required to get medicine/ medical assistance/nurse needed to improve patient’s health; remains inconvenient for those difficulty travelling

Breakdown in internet may result in data loss – that is vital for record keeping for patient’s health and doctor’s analysis


I think this device can be further improved when another one is made, that gives an alarm to neighbouring family members residing in  same household but different space. This would not only alert doctor with said data with calling emergency unit, but it also alerts close caretakers. It could be like an immediate alarm bell or a vibration on his/her phone to signal that he/she assist in giving physical aid to patient.

Micro Project 5


The original photo is taken during an overseas trip in KL where my team and I had breakfast at this hostel called “Mingle Hostel”. Taken last year. After jumping from one picture to another, the way we see our own faces comes blurred in a sea of glitches. The blurries of our faces takes away the focus that I have of my own face. In the bigger picture, I am able to spot a lot of shapes resembling mine – simplified into a lot of ovals with blacks surrounding them.

Assignment 2 Interactive Devices



or this assignment, the devices that I used were servo motors and ultrasonic sensors. The distance sensor would allow movement of the servo motor. When a person moves closer to sensor, it would detect some movement and allow it to move. I was a bit uncertain with the whole concept of my idea, but my idea was to initially show that once a person goes close to a sensor, the movement would stop, and the clothes would go to its original position. This fabric is supposed to move on its own when servo moves, I thought that adding string attached to the main fabric would allow other fabrics to move. IT worked, but the movement was too fast. The feedback that I got was the “Delay” function was the main issue since I wanted the servo to move slowly. Perhaps I could improve by making sure the servo was coded well.

It was my first try with the sewing method, so since Galina taught us that a little bit, I had the privilege of getting my own sewing machine from home. With some fabrics I took from Product design room, I used that for sampling and incorporated certain floral designs in my project. I am happy to know that I picked up sewing skills pretty fast.


Code for Assignment 2


// Include the Servo library

#include <Servo.h>

#include <Stepper.h>

const int trigPin = 6;

const int echoPin = 7;

int servoPin = 3;

int servoPin1 = 4;



long duration;

int distance;

int setSpeed;

Servo Servo1;


void setup() {

Serial.begin(9600); // Starts the serial communication


//  Servo1.attach(servoPin1);

pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT); // Sets the trigPin as an Output

pinMode(echoPin, INPUT); // Sets the echoPin as an Input

pinMode(servoPin, OUTPUT);



void loop() {



digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);


digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);


digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);

distance = duration * 0.034 / 2;

Serial.print(“Distance: “);





if (distance <= 20) {







if (distance <= 50 && distance > 20) {








if (distance > 50 && distance <= 200) {








if (distance > 200) {





Visit to Jimmy Ong’s Work ” Poverty Quilt/ A Year In Java” at Asian Civilization Museum

“The most formidable enemy of a man is his own conscience”

Without leaving him the means of avoiding it, which always brings his crimes before his eyes



Recitation – babat

First song is about the day British company freed Yogyakarta whic his n 1700 in java calendar

12 june 1812

2nd song – about the british invade Yog, looting of items from kampong

colonialism of hava – suffered damage

making a link between those who suffered and singaporeans who had not suffered this ordeal

from what i understand about this – he seems to point towards persuading partiicpants to empathze and sypathize with the villages whos lives became more difficult than it aleady is, and ironically  how as singaporeans there’s so much adornment for sir stamford raffles, when he was involved in this looting spree as well


Device Of The Week 1: Health


Triangular Bandage or a sling is versatile for arm,neck, shoulder, wrist injuries

  • Lightweight
  • Easy to use
  • Affordable
  • Multiple ways of tying to support
  • Can be used to cover non-arm injuries such as head or open wounds
  • Available in first aid kits


  • Movable arm due to light fabric eg run, it will be tricky to remain immovable, and hands are full because other arm supports it
  • Bleeding wounds may seem through sling due to thin fabric
  • Ties may be sustainable for short period, not long

Arm sling is an object that helps to carry a broken arm. Some are made of fabric make sure it is will remain immovable.


  • customized designed to prevent shoulder and elbow joints from moving, reduces pain
  • durable – able to withstand,wear, pressure ( not able to tear fabric)
  • immovable – comforting for arm/elbow injury
  • soft fabric  – polycotton material, breathable
  • easy to wash with mild soap and water
  • Shoulder pad has a padding so that it is comfortable to wear it for long period
  • Able to change elevation of upper strap (neck) – higher or lower


  • fabric over neck supported with cushion so that after long period of wear, it would not strain the neck muscles
  • In context of being in military, it needs an outer layer that blends in well with uniform – blend in with surroundings / attack for injured
  • when lying down, use folded pillow under elbow
  • To take strain off neck, use a pillow(s) below elbow so strap over next is loosened










Week 3: Atmospheres by Peter Zumthor

“perfectly tempered feel to his built spaces is immediately communicated to viewers,residents, visitors and the immediate neighbourhood.”

“atmosphere is an aesthetic category. ”

Reading a place, becoming involved with it, working out the purpose, meaning and goal of a brief, drafting, planning and designing a piece of architecture is therefore a convoluted process that does not follow a straightforward and linear path

Zumworth’s line of thinking when it comes to architecture seems to be non-linear in fashion, where his thought processing is finding out more about the purpose of the building, the type of people who reside in it and what type of mood that it would bring to those who enter the building. Usually architecture would appear very mathematical, logical, with proper planning in place, but I guess that is also something that is just as important as the thought processes, like how Zumworth has mentioned.

Quality architecture  is when a building manages to move a person


“I enter a building, see a room, and in the fraction of a second – have this feeling about it.

“emotional sensibilities – a form of perception that works incredibly quickly, and which we humans evidently need to help us survive.”

  • That view of seeing is already innate in us, heightened awareness of this would make us more appreciative of how first impressions work when we come across people and buildings
  • Besides appreciating, we also tend to reject things in a flash, as author described.

Compared to previous readings, the author has a very romantic perception towards buildings – by describing it as similar to how we form first impressions of people. He seems to associate it with good and bad feelings and he is very expressive in how each particular buildings makes him feel. It does point towards

The task of creating architectural atmosphere also comes down to craft and graft

The Island of The Dead Arnold Bocklin, 1880, Wendlinghausen

Swiss Sound Box, Expo 2000

Edward Hopper’s Early Sunday Morning

Edward Hopper’s Early Sunday Morning
Swiss Sound Box, Expo, 2000
The Island of The Dead Arnold Bocklin, 1880, Wendlinghausen

graft –  the acquisition of money, gain or advantage by dishonest, unfair or illegal means especially through the abuse of one’ position or influence in politics and business.


Week 3 Reading of Peter Zumthor’s “Atmospheres”

“perfectly tempered feel to his built spaces is immediately communicated to viewers,residents, visitors and the immediate neighbourhood.”

“atmosphere is an aesthetic category. “

Quality architecture to me is when a building manages to move me.

“I enter a building, see a room, and in the fraction of a second – have this feeling about it.

“emotional sensibilities – a form of perception that works incredibly quickly, and which we humans evidently need to help us survive.”

  • That view of seeing is already innate in us, heightened awareness of this would make us more appreciative of how first impressions work when we come across people and buildings
  • Besides appreciating, we also tend to reject things in a flash, as author described.

Compared to previous readings, the author has a very romantic perception towards buildings – by describing it as similar to how we form first impressions of people. He seems to associate it with good and bad feelings and he is very expressive in how each particular buildings makes him feel. It does point towards

The task of creating architectural atmosphere also comes down to craft and graft

The Island of The Dead Arnold dockin, 1880, Wendlinghausen

Swiss Sound Box, Expo 2000

Edward Hopper’s Early Sunday Morning

Personifying a building – like how a person appear distinctive from the rest, and buildings can be that way too – one appears outstanding from the other


Week 2: Janet Cardiff &George Miller by Mariory Jacobson


“boundaries between our technologies and ourselves continue to implode (collapse violently inwards); as we inexorably (impossible to prevent from happening) become creatures that we cannot even now imagine”

“[devices like discmans, videocams, and binaural sound equipment] embody the diffidence (uncertainty) of a global information culture both beguiled and betrayed by the promises of the cyber revolution (Kello n.d.).”

This sentence seems to carry a lot of heavy meaning but even after understanding the big words author’s statement seems to be quite hard to understand. From what I know, Lucas Kello’s definition  (Kello n.d.) of cyber revolutions is about new threats and dangers which require immediate intervention by the state, and this is because we live in a time of “global information culture”. I would assume the use of discmans, videocams and binaural sound equipment, which are devices used in her artwork suggests how these can be used to influence people’s way of thinking – which makes it a powerful tool.

“Sounds and dialogue become so authentic we find ourselves removing our headsets to distinguish actuality from invention.”

In Mural Lake, one of their works is an example of this. By featuring a movie theatre facing the visitors it puts them in the position as the viewer, and also “god-like” where he/she directly hovering above the miniature size theatre. With the added use of headphones to drown out any ambient noises from the place they were in, the viewers enter a different “actuality”, where narrator speaks to them in a way that sounds very personal.  think using Janet Cardiff’s soft and persuasive tone in the audio seems to bring out that part, and it plays out well with the clip The Muriel Lake Incident,1999 + AlterBahnof Video Walk, 2012. Her narration seems to be telling the audience how to think according to what she thinks, and this play around a person’s line of thought does make the installation quite immersive. And it really does help that a human element such as her voice brings a person to see things from another person’s point of view. In literal form I guess this would mean the idiom “speaking her mind” directly at you. This “binaural” technique that she uses sees to be a recurring theme in her other videos besides The Muriel Lake Incident,1999 & AlterBahnof Video Walk, 2012 which has been effective in influencing the way people think and behave.

The Muriel Lake Incident,1999 @3:42

Kello, Lucas. n.d. “The Meaning of Cyber Revolution.” MIT Press Journals.

Week 1: Body,Personal Relations and Spatial Values Yi Fu Tuan

Front and back regions of the body is used as concept used in space

“The human being, by his mere presence, imposes a schema on space.”

“He marks its presence on those ritual occasions that lift life above the ordinary ad so force him to an awareness of life’s values”

Same structure and values of the human body

The symbolic advantages of upper stories of a house can easily be outweighed by their practical problems.

Islamic tradition – Kaabah, is not only the center and naval of the world but also its highest point

Frontal space is mainly visual, represents dignity , awe and commands respect

Back space is “dark”

This reading seems to revolve around the idea of bringing the concept of how our body postures are naturally and how it relates to space.

Circumambient space is differentiated in accordance with schema of his body.

People may work in the same building yet experience different worlds because their unequal status propels them into different circulatory routes and work areas.

By using the example of ADM buildings, there are made up of different floors, the upper floors are mainly occupied by staff, and the bottom floors are rooms for students, study labs, lecture rooms and workshop area. Since we have our own places to go to, it is interesting how the rooms that we visit often are different in terms of space and environment. The upper floors appear quieter, and isolated office rooms and mainly older teaching staff are there to interact with each other. This is a completely different setting in the lower floors where it the setting is slightly less formal and noisier.

With the way spaces are being constructed, the creator has a deliberate way of positioning people and space, where in real life situations– customer service sector facing entrance door to welcome visitors, are also quiet interesting to take note of. This deliberately planned usage of space also encourages likelihood of certain people to bump into each other, and above all, and empty space makes more room for more people to interact and increase possibilities of forming relations.

At the same time, in places like hotels or restaurants, visitors rarely get to see people pushing in box cartons or the stressful cooking environment at the kitchen – which would not be the best sight to see for them. However, in TV shows like Hell’s Kitchen, there is a division in place between the restaurant tables and chairs and the kitchen – by glass walls in place.

Being close combines two meanings of intimacy and geographical closeness. As the friend moves father and farther away geographically, emotional warmth also declines.

“out of sight, out of mind”

Alternatively, “social distance may be the inverse of geographical distance”.

Giant posters above at the start of expressway  is also a way to signal motorists that they are entering a long stretch of road – which is similar to a welcome sign at the front part of person’s house, and that also reflects how we construct buildings with the intention of making people more conscious of the spaces they are entering in a safe way.