updates for week 11

Building up on previous consultation, I had to make some changes. I switched circuit boards from using 16 Channel Servo Shield and Servo Motors, to L298N and DC Gear Motors. This was because there use of gear motors was more flexible in its movement and speed, where it can move beyond 180degress clockwise and anti-clockwise. The flexibility and range of values I play around would keep my input of data more varied and accurate to what type of movement I want to make as much as possible.

Using L298n helps to control two motors in their movement and direction.The circuit diagram below depicts a full sketch (with inaccuracy in the L293D)

I haven’t really explored much with the way motors move, but I made this sample of movements and played around with the delays and pauses. I created layers of code where there is a build of pauses after each set of movements. The pauses gets longer and longer at the end of the set. Each set creates a type of rhythm that appears predictable. But the pauses at end are delayed after each round, creating some sense of anticipation.

I think I have a lot more to explore in terms of their movements as of now.


I discovered a useful device to power multiple servos at same time easily. It came from this tutorial.

This was a far better option as compared to using simple Arduino-  breadboard jumper wires-battery method to power servo. This was because I see my project using multiple if not, more than 10 servos at once, given installation including some interactivity and movement. However, I will keep my options open in using the types of materials to use.

The 16 Channel Servo Shield was a better alternative to powering multiple servos. It is a device with built in 3 pin male jumpers for servo wires to be slot in. As described, it can power 16 servos at once, within one device so this makes things efficient in technical part of the project.

Aside from the technical side, I did not made any application of theories of ” – which included  but will likely do them soon. Here is the reference from the book recommended to me. Guesstimating to do

a)Pulling, b) Enforced disintegration c) Bursting  as seen below.

Arthur Ganson’s works are some works I’m supposed to refer to, but still working on experimenting different ways gears could ‘express’ themselves. I’m not so fond of working outside of simple mechanisms of gears. For the current board that you are seeing right now, you see some bent wires connected to a section of the gear tooth (lasercut).

The small hole in the tooth for some gears was there to observe how many rounds it makes when it connected with servo. Instead, I just attached some wire found and tried to make some “connections” – between one entity and the other. This part is seen in the last clip (below). These are just shots of how I build the servos, prepared the boards and planting of gears, and saw how servos coded differently ( in terms of delay) for each video, they move differently too.

Currently, there were some technical challenges in powering these servos to play at the same time with gears attached, and I am still working on this before proceeding to play around with movements of gears, with reference to the Scholl’s experiments. The movement of gears was meant to be explored in the coming weeks, so I’m hoping to with lesser assignment piling up, there will be more time for this.

In conclusion, I’m way behind schedule in terms of experimentation! But, I’m quite hopeful I can at least find the time to further refine my process of working around with gears in the coming days.




inspirations for gears, update

And last one is one by Jennifer Townley.  In one of her works, she uses the gears and several other mechanical objects that are put together and interact with one another. In the video as you can see, her use of spring attached to one the letters give way to some movement to the gear, which I thought was interesting. At 0:36 second mark, there is a “torque” on the gear beside half-gear “D”, which causes “D” to move. Afterwhich, once it is off the torque, the letter bounces of the spring that is attached to it. These movements also can accompany the movement of gears without interrupting their basic motion. When applied to my case of using 180 servo motors to rotate gears, I could try adding a torque and some spring to bring out some effect from these gears.

In terms of the progress I’ve made, for my gears aren’t very significant or substantial, as it was before recess week. I’m building a larger prototype with more gears and servos on them, the only difference is the use of a larger size board for support.

I haven’t worked on experimentation just….yet. A bit reluctant about exploring what to work on with the current gear situation. However, these videos above are some potential ideas/inspirations to get me going.

research findings for understanding perception of human behavior

1. stimulus- conditions determine behavior
a. potential origins of movement
b. the door is immobile, in opposite of 3 shapes
c. Therefore, this makes 3 shapes as origins
2. Successive movements without contact

Interpreting movements as actions of persons
” Interpreted the picture in terms of actions of animated beings, chiefly of person” ”
” The way in which the actors are judged is closely connected with this attribution of origin ( appearance, size?) It is held that this method is useful in investigating the way the behavior other persons is perceived”

In relation to gears, we can link this to the movement of gears.

Perceptual Causality an Animacy


1. Movement of items = alive, goals, intentional states such as desires ( for eg large triangle want to catch small triangle)
2. The ability to perceive causality from simple motions displays emerges before infant have learned language – could this be an inborn trait?
3. .”…a property of animcy also appears to be perceived in simple displays” => Gears should be made simple, in order amplify the trait/behavior you want to show audience => perception people make would be more accurate
4. Add on to 3, Michotte suggested simple motion cues provide the foundation for social perception (how people perceive social situations) in general
5. Temporal Contiguity & Spatial Proximity produced phenomenal relationships among geometric figures

Chapter 2 & 5

Chapter 2: Project Management Goals & Activities

In order to ascertain the meaning of an intellectual conception we should consider what practical consequences might conceivably result by necessity from the truth of that conception; and the sum of these consequences will constitute the entire meaning of the conception.

There needs to be an objective for every project – specific to needs of field, purposes differ from one field to the next. The reading also mentioned budgeting.  The importance of budgeting is to ensure sufficient costs or potential risks can be curtailed from the beginning of project.

Geotechnical investigations, surveys, hazardous-materials studies, field reconnaissance visits, and field measurements are required, and these involve performing work on project sites.

The aforementioned are also important factors to consider too – which means the location of where our final design outcome will be placed also needs to be considered. By knowing the basic foundations in making of structures, whether an architectural building, a site installation or etc, experts in this geotechnical field can raise concerns to project managers on potential pitfalls or what can be done, which is necessary especially at beginning stages of project.

Safety is important. This comes in the form of health hazards that may disrupt one’s productivity at work, especially in large scale design projects where teams work together. In this chapter, the phenomenon of sick buildings is a term to describe airborne contaminating the environment inside of a building. This affects the people who work in there if they spend long period of time in the place.

Quality is extremely important to design professionals

Projects of high quality are great business development tools. Clients who are pleased with the quality of a project generally return to the design firm for additional work

Design professionals  create a reputation for themselves based on the way they handle their projects. If the process of working through tight deadlines and managing budgets has been good, then the clients would be willing to come back again for future projects.

However, if clients are unsatisfied with the outcomes, then there is a chance that clients may form impressions that make design professionals’ quality of work appear less than. It would be a good opportunity for design professions to look out for any loopholes in the way they managed the project, where they can work on closing the gaps that never knew existed.

This would benefit potential clients as well as themselves, so that by knowing one’s own limitations or potential weaknesses, they would be careful not to repeat the same mistakes again. This goes for all kinds of professions in general, but in the design world, those who take on more experiences from many years should be quick to admit shortcomings of his/her own in and generate clear, sustainable solutions along the way.

This is supported from page 33, where “Learning is a necessary survival skill for project managers for it is the only way to prevent past mistakes from reoccurring.” As a precursor to efficiency, that will be mentioned later on, I thought that it is important that project managers or even other team members voice out concerns at some point during the stages. It is also important that creating a work climate of tension and fault-finding may result in poor productivity for some workers.

Instead, wouldn’t it be better if people were just as quick to exchange creative solutions after every problem surfaced? By acknowledging that shortcoming are part and parcel of life, and that it is predicted to come, to allows teams led by Project Managers to share innovate solutions would be good too. There would be an open air of communication, which is also a necessary part of making sure we are being efficient.

Additionally, “a common way most young project managers learn is by making their own mistakes, which are sometimes mistakes others in the design firm may have already made”. This supports the need to understand nature of team work and large scale projects may be demanding, however there needs to be an open communication

From managing budgets, meeting deadlines, or quality control are some elements that can affect overall quality of work. Alternatively, clients may look elsewhere where their needs are met way beyond their expectations – leaving professionals unaware or confused of what could be done better.

Managing a project, as well as everyone’s expectations, is a juggling act. It takes experience, education, and a lot of practice to properly balance all facets of a project for the benefit of both the project and everyone involved.

Efficiency, which is often confused with effectiveness, is doing things quickly, without a lot of false steps and rework ( explain relevance of this in cultural context in personal work environment

I agree with the statement that efficiency is often mixed up with effectiveness. There seems to be a recurring issue in doing things in a haste manner, instead of thinking things thoroughly and looking out for potential ideas or solutions that would improve effectiveness of the work. Based on my personal experiences, in this day and age there seems to be growing norm of being quick and efficient, which is acceptable but it can also come at a cost.

For example, managing several deadlines would require a student to manage his/her time properly, meaning planning stages need to be well thought out or else there would be tasks done at the last minute. As a result, the quality of work, or idea processes or experimental stages are affected if the time is not managed well. I personally find that quality of work is always supported by thorough research and planning and great time management, and this may not necessarily be done in the most efficient way possible.

The basic phases to start off a project includes:

1. Start-the project begins

2. Planning-figuring out how to perform the work

3. Design-the project’s overall design is worked out

4. Production-preparation of construction documents and/ or other deliverable based on the overall design

5. Closeout-the project work is completed


1. Defining the design project’s scope of work, budget, and schedule-in effect, determining the project objectives

2. Planning the work effort so that the project scope of work, budget, and schedule will be met

3. Directing the design team as it does the work so the project objectives will be met while staying within bud- get and on schedule

4. Coordinating the efforts of the design team so that inter- disciplinary information flows smoothly and at the right time

5. Monitoring the design team’s work product and progress against the project objectives, budget, and schedule

6. Learning from the project-what went right, what went wrong, and how to improve performance on the next project

In summary, Chapter 2 described the importance of having a work plan and having project managers equipped with the right set of attitudes and ethical principles to follow when juggling multiple tasks and people. They do not play the dictatorship or autocratic role. This would be detrimental to the emotional climate of the work environment, and this may gradually affect the outcome of the project.

My personal take on this is culturally, there needs to be a shift in the way we see leadership in 21st century, where hierarchies are still formed in some countries, including Singapore. With design professionals or project managers, they need to understand the nuance of leading people without resorting to autocratic or dictatorship and more open to new possibilities of working in a dynamic that produces the best outcome.

My take on this is that managing the emotional climate, and ensuring that project managers attend to specific needs of people are important in ensuring the work is on track, and that everyone plays a contributory role to quality of the work put in.

As much as having a solid framework from start to end is important, I also think having some sense of spontaneity may work in some processes. However, my limited experience in working in design industries may make this statement not so relevant but still something to think about, because it can possibly lead to new ways of learning.

Chapter 5: Planning the Project

pg 81-110

Design professional are planners by profession.

As someone who works as a publicity officer in the

They try out various alternatives, making sketches over and over until the design is just right

A design project must be planned. This is the only consistent way of achieving project success without blindly hoping for a lucky roll of the dice. Not planning projects is also a plan, a bad plan. It is a plan to fail.

A giant leap, yes, but it was the small steps of a well-thought-out and executed plan that got him(Neil Armstrong), first astronaut to land on moon) there. 

When the project manager does not know a certain aspect of the work-and this is both understandable and common-the project manager must consult with others who do.

Explain assumption that project managers tend to know everything, there fore assumed role as a leader, tends to associate them with qualities of a know-it-all, which is an assumption. Therefore,  it is very important

Planning large projects is a lot like eating a whale. The trick is to divide the project into manageable bites or pieces-called tasks-and then chew them in the correct order (see Figure 5.5).

 Something unexpected almost always happens on projects. Consequently, it is a good idea to squirrel away a little money for the unexpected 

As mentioned in previous chapter, on spontaneity, there is also some thing unpredictable that can happen along the  way.  Hence, before the problem becomes difficult to resolve, storing a portion of money aside as a potential solution is useful.

The project manager also uses the project schedule as a timeline benchmark, against which project progress can be compared to see if work is being accomplished at the pace it should be

Two kinds of knowledge required to properly plan a project:

1. An understanding of project management

2. The technical knowledge and experience that comes from actually doing design work


There are six objectives of the project work plan. These are:

1. Definition of the project objectives

2. Identification of the project team

3. Breakdown of the project into task budgets

4. Development of the project schedule

5. Establishment of the project quality-control program

6. Identification of other project-specific procedures and standards


In summary, there is a lot of lists pertaining to project work plans – from the practical to the theoretical. I would only follow one that is best suited to my personal objectives of planning Final Year Project in the coming months.  In pages 106-107, “Outline of a Typical Project Work Plan Document” seems to covers all things necessary.

Social Art Practice – A Case Study on “Modern Resonance” by Alecia Neo

Social Practice Art gives a voice to many types of causes, or raises awareness about issues that are of a concern to many people, particularly artists and it with artists who are representatives of the mass collective of people who would follow similar concerns.. .

 Their artworks portray concepts or visually appealing works that is meant to engage viewers and let them ponder and think about how this could possibly relate to them. 

Alecia Neo, a Singaporean artist has made an interesting art installation recently called "Modern Resonance: Power To The People", which was made last year. Her Bauhaus-centric type of as she described uses materials that captures the essence of people - where the use of 100 bulbs lying around the ground seemed rather symbolic and representational of idea of people and consumerism.

 “Modern Resonance” pays tribute to the hardware and software of a power station – its utilitarian principles and generations of workers

Source: https://alecianeo.myportfolio.com/projects


Utilitarianism follows the belief that the doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for the benefit of a majority. Bauhaus elements are added as well (beauty + usefulness) , the artist portrays her works simplistically with just 100 same bulbs, wires to light them up and some double-sided round mirrors. These products seems to be everyday objects which, in relation to concept, is mass produced in many different forms. Some mirrors are round, rectangular, short and long. The same applies for the bulbs too.

Perhaps, the intention of making the products the same throughout, is not only Bauhaus, but also to create sense of “mass”, like a collection of the same thing over and over again. This could be critic on mass consumerism in today’s city life too. In relation to the works, there are laid out in same manner, with bulb and mirror side by side. The artist’s intention is suggestive of strong influence of Western principles with Greek philosophy (British philosopher created Utilitarianism) and German art movement (Bahaus). These influences are also critical to look into when we consider how they portray artwork, especially when put in local context – they appear very far apart.

 the hardware and software of a power station – its utilitarian principles and generations of workers.

As mentioned above by artists, this artwork worked well as a tribute, especially with ambiance that resembles to that of a religious vigil taking place.

There’s also that possibility that this could be figurative too – where in a capitalist democratic society like Singapore, our quest for control and power also creates a rather dog-eats-dog way of thinking too. Therefore, the ladder could symbolize idea of climbing our way to the top, thus forming a hierarchy.


With lone figure dressed in blue, as main character in performance art also representative of blue-collared workers. For example people who work in professions deemed to at the lower hierarchies of society – namely those involved in manual labor. My take for this work is that it is meant for locals to be directly affected by the consumption of power, light that we often take for granted. With the use of ladder, representing a hierarchy, and video projection of portraits at the bottom, seems to me reflects the natural hierarchies that categorizes people of blue-collar at lower ends and those who “make their way to the top” as upper end. This is just my interpretation.

The materials used were very clever, with the ladder, and the bulbs which are repetitively displayed all over the space – as if to show the concept of hierarchies where “you climb your way to the top” a typical phrase that is somewhat present in cultures such as the workplace, for example. W

However, the artist’s video projection of portraits seemed a bit off to me, but there are several assumptions I’ve made.

The close up faces of the people were not identified. Video projection featured both men and women, much older in age where they appear to show facial expressions of them smiling and some closed.


Talk about functions of materials – interesting element is the round mirrors beside the light bulbs – are they meant to portray something for viewers? Mirrors are used for reflections so could it be that, based on the way they are positioned, is artist subtly making us viewers that our reflections towards the usage of power.


In summary, this multimedia installation piece seems to suggest several spiritual, reflective elements with strong concepts to hierarchies and personal identities of those who are categorized to the lower rungs of society – blue collared workers, as they are the ones performing manual labor , or industry. It seems artists are trying to portray them in a commemorative sense.

In terms of spiritual/religious elements, it is seen in the way vigil-like set up. What appears to look like candles lit up individuals are actually light bulbs, with a distinctive illumination of photographic projection of portraits of older laymen and laywomen alongside the lights. It looks beautiful when it gets dark – because the illumination gets stronger.

The interaction seemed to be minimal, with direct gazes of the audiences at the main subject, a young lady in blue uniform, perhaps to identify oneself as a blue collared worker, performing on her own. A few audience members are selected to hold the light bulb switch and wires. And assuming the lady give commands, they are the ones to heed her.

The performance piece was not recorded. However, some photographs featuring the main subject, a woman dressed performed several occasions. One include

Majority audiences watching the performance art, while there a few squatting down – grab hold of wires/light switches to turn on the bulbs.


In retrospect, the terms social practice art in this sense is quite broad because it covers different themes, which are free to be interpreted by the artists and non-artists. Undeniably, there will always be a focus towards a type of demographic, in my opinion. That would direct viewers and art critics towards understanding the theme and being fully aware that they are around us. The work is simply an outlet to express that theme, in relatable means, because after all the work is synonyms to “relational art”. It relates.

With that being said, the work directs its focus on the blue collared workers, of socity, where they often work at backend – unrecognized for the effort in provision of everyday products to ensure safe consumption.

Also, I found that materials artists use can be symbolic – representing an idea or a concept that relates to mass audiences. I think this is the beauty of social practice art making, it relates to people!

In the bigger picture, it is portraying the effects of capitalistic society where hierarchies are naturally formed, making the creator/manufacturer the demographics where they are most unappreciated, but artists puts spotlight on them to give them the recognition they deserve.

Response To Social Practice Art

Based on my understanding of the reading, there were several points highlighted which were quite significant. The meaning of art making should not necessarily bring out social problems or issues that have already existed or known to the community. It may close the gaps for those who are unaware, or those who deserve to recognize the existing problems that need to be resolved. Instead, what the author is trying to redefine with artmaking is to introduce possible solutions which are creative, innovative and sustainable in the long run. Most importantly, they are social solutions that helps to bring a change to the communal environment that are affected by social issues (homelessness, drug trafficking, prostitutions, single motherhood) and what more can art do than to relate to people, communities then through meaningful art making.

The article also mentioned how Political Art in this day and age are presumably made to get profit out of their works. This is understandable considering art industry, like any other industry aren’t always set out to produce forms of appreciations, awareness but it works the same way businesses work – to make money. At the same time, art works which are heavy with strong influences from political theories, political stands and political figures, and given the internet with its resources, allows many forms of opinions and personal stands to be formed. With that being said, art can go both ways – to influence or to profit.

However, the article seems to point towards how “today’s ruling class” aren’t necessarily in it for the profit. Instead, they seem to avoid “commercializing” their art and prefers to make “outwardly avowed political solidarity as part of its defining trait”. From my understanding of this part, it suggests that political art is independent of any systems such as capitalism and instead an alternative forms of capitalism are made to influence a new mass of people – preferably a system that doesn’t constrain them the way capitalism has been (even though enough liberty has been offered to places such as USA, where this was written). This shows how influential art can be, and it takes on a whole new dimension in this age where people with wide access to Internet, and resources such as their communities and people are able to un-learn what the current system taught them and re-learn a new form of political system that can be a part of a new political system, as an alternative to the system they are under. That mean it hasn’t necessarily been defined as legal. This would ultimately be defined as “social practice” as written in there.

The artist Maureen Mullarkey seems to criticize this idea of social practice. She seemed reluctant with the idea of “social practice” which is quite predictable given author’s description of being “arch-conservative”, someone resistant to changes, perhaps even in her stance towards contemporary art of today. He seems to suggest contemporary art is trending with artists who are “soi-distant promoters of their own notions of the common good”. It seemed like she did not like the idea of how artists can appease to an audience by portraying themselves as the Good Samaritans of society, and possibly used as a tool to manipulate masses simply because they can. Perhaps, she, herself would know such creations of political art can be influential for reasons which are far beyond the “common good”, being an art critic herself.

In conclusion, I find that political art in general are rather questionable, especially with the artist’s intent. It is hard to unpack an artist’s intentions because there could be many. And with an artist’s ability to gather resources such as communities, especially vulnerable ones such as those who seek out shelters in Third Ward, Public Row Houses residences, may easily be trapped into thinking they are helped by Good Samaritans, when in fact it could be the opposite. However, I do think there are real good causes that are in support of looking after the not-so well off. It seems to be that in manipulation of people seems to be a recurring theme through contemporary art of today – whether it helps or “uplifts” the society and makes it progressive; only time will tell.

698 words


Pitch Proposal For Final Project

Pitch Proposal

  1. Umbrella cover with dual materials that absorbs water from rain as soon as cover senses material of the umbrella and able to dry it quickly.
  2. Use an electronic eraser that follows the movement of waving hang gestures to wipe off dirt from a whiteboard.
  3. Belt tighter made to control how tight belt bucks is over waist without touching it.

Overview of the project

  1. To create an umbrella cover with dual material that absorbs water from umbrella so that you can store it immediately without anything else getting wet, efficient way with after-use of umbrella
  2. To ease use of magnet-attached duster by adding electronics and sensors to ease movement of duster on whiteboard – easy erasing
  3. ???

Few sentences / Image

  1. A wet-umbrella cover that is water absorbent and doesn’t wet the surrounding objects once the umbrella is slot into holder
  1. An automated white board eraser that follows hand gestures to wipe dust off board / An Automated eraser that moves according to user-controlled object attached to it
  2. ??

Context / Rationale

  1. Immediate dry after using small umbrella for easy storage in bag. Normally after using it after use from rain, the wetness keeps one from not storing it immediately inside the bag, inconvenient to store in holder because it is not water absorbent, holder usually misplaced or lost ( there are exceptions :P)  By adding dual material with inner layer – a material that absorbs water, and outer layer – a material that holds shape of umbrella & strong handgrip.
  2.  This reduce effort needed by people, usually educators using the duster to wipe of dirt from board. Reduces effort, reduces unnecessary time wastage, allows user to control direction of duster for erasing

Why is this relevant?

  1. This is relevant in a wet weather where there is little to no space for an umbrella to be dried off immediately, unless you  are at a given space for a long period of time. By introducing an umbrella cover, it removes the hassle of finding a space to leave it out in the open, as likelihood of drying takes longer ( esp in wet weather), and also possibility of misplacement, forgetfulness and theft.
  2. Allows another user to wipe off dirt with little effort; simply make wiping hand gestures that allows movement of duster on board. This is relevant in a period where unnecessary time need not be wasted on activities such as erasing the board

Solution to a problem? Design Object? Experience ?

  1. Solution to a problem – reduces time and effort, likelihood of misplacement and theft
  2. Solution to the problem – reduces time and effort in a time-structured setting such as teaching in a classroom,  discussion in a board room where whiteboard is used as a medium


Aesthetic/Artistic realm -or- Design realm

  1. Assuming the mini umbrella has 8 flaps, the holder can slot 8 flaps fittingly, dual material with inner and outer layera. Inner material – thin foam, spongy material, any material water absorbentb. Outer Material – rough but thin that can be easily gripped by hands, flexible so it is wrappable before making a lockInteractive Element: ??
  2. An object that moves on its own without

Similar works, critique and differences

Inspiration sources

Interaction (describe how people will interact with it, cover many scenarios):

Metaphor / Principles

Storyboard /Mockup



a. Inner material – thin foam, spongy material, any material water absorbent

b. Outer Material – rough but thin that can be easily gripped by hands, flexible so it is wrappable before making a lock ( exploe biodegradable material)

Milestones with a weekly breakdown of tasks to accomplish.

Description of the first prototype.

How will you work be shown at the end of the semester?

How will you document your work? mainly the interaction?