[SOVA] Sem 1

WEEK 1 TUT – self intro
WEEK 1 LEC- dont have
WEEK 2- public holiday
WEEK 3 LECTURE : Greek Art

WEEK 4 TUT : Greek Art

Humanism (in ancient greek world)
Human as a reflection of god
Strive for perfection (arete)
Obsession with beauty and intellect
Greek humanism VS humanity

Democracy comes from idea of individualism
In ancient world, individual doesn’t have a voice, seen as groups
Temple in ancient world serves multiple purpose –> public space
Pray, social interactions (can voice out ideas: building facilitate individualism)
Lots of public spaces to hang out exchange ideas
Quest for knowledge (humanism too)


Ref list !!¡¡¡ + Credit line


 WEEK 4 LECTURE : Roman Art

Roman cocktails
“Captive greece took roman captive”
Rome invaded greece but fully adopted its ideals (ie. Roman ver of greek gods)
Went in and embraced greece
Doric, ionic, corinthian
Greeks never mix them, but romans do
“The vocaublary is right but the grammer is wrong”
–> composite order : ionic x corinthian
Athens on decline, rome on incline
Maison caree in nimes -> greek temple
(In southern italy where rome took over)

Roman as engineers
Greece : post and lintel T
Romans: arch
Arch has more strength
Arch parts: impost, keystone etc
Arches to commemerate victories (usually millitary ones) -> symbols of power
Arches as history books-> images on the arches
Symbols of strength for u n what u stand for, but can become targets for ur enemies/ to mock (ie. Hitler n Arc de Triomphe in paris)

Romans and concrete
Cheap,and easier to use.
Concrete inside n then marble facade

Romes vs Greeks
Strength VS Refinement/elegance
Strength VS Idealism
Utility VS Grace
Monumental VS Human scale

Societal move (greece ideals to rome ideals)
roman empire able to conquer such a big area-> aggressive, violent society, ambitous, Practicality

“Flat 2d” Arch
“3d Arch” Barrel/tunnel vault
“Intercepting Arch” Groin/cross vault
“Rotating arch” dome

Pan : all of
Theos : gods
> greek: columns in front
> roman: dome
Its a sphere!!¡¡ perfect circle
Oculus : eye
Tallest arch without a keystone!!¡¡
(Not practical (rain) but symbolic- oculus allows shaft of light to penetrate. The sunlight will shift )

Thomas jefferson obsessed with the pantheon style

Greek theatre: made lots of amphitheatre
Theatron carved from a hill
Good acoustics
Roman theatre: no more hillside. Free standing building.
Original design was 2 semi circle back2back, but decided to remove that wall. Created an amphitheatre
Engaged column. Decoratice reasons only. Lvl1: doric, 2:ionic, 3:corinthian
Was able to channel water into the amphitheatres to reenact naval battles etc
These amphitheatres so strong that they still stand today and are fully functional- music concerts venue

Sculpture of Augustus
Emperor of rome
Humanistic face. Unique features
Slightly idealistic (might be a perfected version of Augustus
Halfway btwn god n human
Unlike nude Greek statues, hes clothed
Figure hugging clothes: still showcase Olympian athletic body
Top: soldierly. Bottom: toga, more scholarly vibe
Instead of tree stump, they use a cherum

Artworks move to different places of the romam empire instead of the emperor himself (who has to stay at the centre).
Mass production
Use art to send political message?

Trajans column. Art for historical documentation sake. Lol trajans ashes to are in the column.
Not designed for public use/ see, but art for the gods???

WEEK 5 TUT:  Roman Art

Romans felt inferior to the greeks
They wanted to be like the senpais!
Mt vesuvious errupted. Buried pompeii and herculaneum in thick volcanic ash–> able to preserve structure and the art(paintings on the walls: fresco) + culture-> frozen in time, time capsule

Villa of mystery’s fresco
Painted in layers
Depicts the scenes of bride?

initiation of a young woman into a Greco-Roman mystery cult

The fresco images you will see in the Villa of Mysteries seem to part of a ritual ceremony aimed at preparing privileged, protected girls for the psychological transition to life as married women

depicts a mysterious rite, that is reserved for the devotees of the cult.

Concrete in the past is stronger than today
Used volcanic ash + quicklime
Resistant to corrotion
Structural reinforcement


Trajans column

So “modern” people added the statue of saint peter??? Why not the emperor if its a historical document. What is his significance, i tot romans were more scienty
So they purposely made the base look damaged???


Early christian art: telling a story. Greek art vs early christian- shifted priorities. Replication vs driving a message.

Edict of milan

PRE: hidden locations of christian art
Usually underground in the catacombs
What is the art for if its in a closed tomb?
Strong link btwn art and belief in this context. couldnt even be buried as a christian. Need to hide ur christian art as well-> thus employ the use of symbols
Circular dome shape of tomb-> linked to heaven
Shephard guy in the middle-> terminology of the good shephard. Shephard is jesus, lamb and flock is his followers
Fish -> i am the fisher of man
Orant pose -> without christian knowledge, you wouldnt know what it means
(Lambs r a symbol of sacrifice, the cross is the method. Lamb is a depiction of christ in many artworks.)

When something is illegal, you dont stop it. You drive it out of sight

Meaning driven underground thus early christian art has lots of symbols

Churches: artworks can be found in the basilicas/churches. Churches represent gods house/ the closest place to heaven. Apse: symbolizes top of christs head, while the church symbolizes his body. Nave: “navis” boat. The boat that will transport ur soul to heaven. Spiritual move. Aisle: wings of a bird.
Circular church: there is no cornor to hide. God is all seeing. Architecture exposes u and ur sins.

Constantinople: olden name for istanbul. Meant the city of constantine. Became the centre of everything christian after rome fell.
The coming tgt of state and religion. Money and power.

Justinian, bishop maximianus: The use of mosaic lasts forever. Words on the painting to help ppl understand the narratives. Gods forces (bishop, etc) on the right, state forces on the left (the king, the soldiers). Christogram XP on shield (god will defend us)

QUESTIONS OOOO: Praying to painting instead of to god. Art on the wall simply distracts you? Slightly seduced by the beauty of the art. Christianity says you shouldnt worship a false idol. 1) slightly loosing focus: are u praying to the painting or 2) wow so beautiful the power of art: Art is in the service of christianity
Is it right to try and depict god as a human. Condescending as humans have flaws but god is perfect?


Persecution by Trajan
Must pray to the roman pagan gods

The good shephard
The Oranate (arms open)
Monogram of christ (Chi rho)
Fish n anchor

Christianity no longer illegal

Roman pagan architecture: focus on outside VS christianity architecture: focus on the inside
—> christian basillica

Whats the diff btwn basillica and normal church. Or whats the characteristics of a basillica

Iconoclasm : image breaker

-false worship
-denked the fact that holy icons hav any spiritual effect on worshippers
-propriety of creating images of god
-depictions were influenced by Pagan iconography (Angels not said to hav wings n halos, but usually depicted as such. Pagan genies hav wings)

-adornment of churches
-icons as expressuon of the christian faith n experience
-means of worship, and not obj of worship
(Bridge btwn material n spiritual world. Spiritual being manifest in the icon)
-john of damuscus
>communicators for the illeterate
>icon is bearer of grace for the devout (icon is extension of the holy figure)
>believed that gods image can be represented by humans (cuz humans are made to look like gods reflection–> god depicted as human–> representation of a representation of god)

First building with square basillica instead of rectangle
Hemispherical dome supported pendentives and semidomes
2mechaniko- physicist n mathematicians (anthemius and isodorus)
Four towers for prayer calls- mineracs(?)

-halo over his head –> suggest he is a divine being
-holding bread
(Wanted to conquer italy)
Bishop maximanius
-handpicked by justinian
Belisarius + narses (roman generals)

-symbolism of art
-art to deliver msg
-art for propaganda

Giraldous de barri on the ChiRhoIota page in book of kells


WEEK 6 LEC: Essay Writing
CURRENCY– When was it written: up2date/ outdated?
RELEVANCE– How much information is presented: superficial/detailed. Info related to your topic? Appropriate readership lvl.
AUTHORITY- Authors and their credentials. Peer revealed journals? Books: Scholarly/popular presses or self published?
ACCURACY- Bibliography in the source? Can you cross-check the info?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVITY–  is the purpose stated? is author biased->effects?


WEEK 7 TUT: Essay consult 

(Come up with ur own thesis statement with the artefact) the points are just guidelines

Introduce certain thing about the artwork
“In this essay I will be using the colosseum as a platform for propganda in ancient rome”

Main article/ref you will be looking at
“I’ll be looking at/referring to this writing from blah blah blah”

Define ur own area of research 😮 can be super specific asdfghjkl

Conclusion, more than just a summary. Suggest further discussion to another topic/issue. (Perhaps seeing the artwork in a modern context since its one of the few arches that still exist)

Chicago style
J store

General essay
Or specific timeline (specific emperor)
Compare it to other arches from Rome
Compare visual, function, Location

Define terms in the footnotes

Most monuments face east (where the sun rises) front of the arch
East-west facing main facade

Put an “argument” n ur standpoint



French revolution
Gg aristocrats and the church

Concept of iconoclasm still alive today
Work of art that threatens ur belief so much you have to destroy it

Hagia Sophia = saint wisdom
4 minarets on each corner -> temple
Built in Constantinople (emperor Constantine polis (city)) aka Istanbul now
Built on a hill
King Justinian built it for
Religion x state // theology x politics
Sacred space where head of church n state meet to seal absolute power with symbolic place
Materials used: strong materials that will
last for long time = Christianity is here to last
Giant ass building, phenomenal scale
Dome itself symbolized heaven
Meet under the dome of heaven
Main dome and 3 half dome around for structural support
Ring of light that joins earth and heaven
Pendentives –> architectural feat
Originally a mosque, subsequently converted into a museum

Romanesque. 11th century
(Label attached to the style. coined centuries ltr–> not very accurate. Treat Romanesque as a time period and a style)

Nine crusades ordered by pope to try and take back Jerusalem –> power of the church
Cathedrals cost a fortune
Power of church similar to power of kings and queens
Relics coming back from the holy land (crown of thorns, shroud Jesus was wrapped in when took down cross, wood from the cross)
1. Mostly religious
2. Around 11th century
3. Mostly western European
4. Round arches that make it look Roman
5. Demonstrating power and control of church over society
6. Pilgrimage sites (functional church and not just symbolic)
7. Orientation: main enterence to church is West. Apse face the east (rising son, where the second coming will begin). East west facing
8. West entrance in church is main entrance
9. Heavy structures. Rounded. Made of stone. Massive heavy piers
10. Dark with lesser/small windows -> windows r weak areas in a wall. Strong wall is a solid wall (but not rly)
Greek cross vs Latin cross plan
Central dome (all seeing god) vs cruxifiction cross

Nave (navis:ship) ship that will transport our soul
Two arms: crossing, trancept
Alter (altarei: table/high)
Wine: blood of jesus
Bread: body of jesus
Eat n drink both: letting jesus into u to cleanse u of ur sins

Bell tower and minaret: so that church is also heard. Call to church via ringing bells


Autun, france
Not at eye level bcuz u not equal lvl with the ppl. Looking up
Jesus central highcharacter. Biggest charac. Impossible to miss
Walk pass jesus in the house of god
People rising up from the ded: judgement day
Left side: going to heaven. Angels n mary at the top.
Right: scales of justice. Angels n demons trying to tip the balance. Hell.

Not many paintings, but hav illustrated manuscripts.
Artist aesthetics went backwards (no longer realistic). Incorrect proportion. No attempt at perspective / studies of light and shade
Narrative is the most important thing

Bayeux tapestry
Williams invasion of England
Ends in battle of Hastings
Hic harold rex interfec
King harold with arrow in his eye dies
French win English


Byzantine and romanesque art

Thick walls
Round arches
Large towers
Decorative arccades
Small windows

Nave navis ship
Symbolic value of light
Vault ceiling: divinity of god thru duplicity
Sacred symols: triangle circle square

Tympanum art:
Last judgement: heaven or hell
At the door, influence ppl to go in and pray
Showcase wealth of the church

Illuminated manuscripts
Manuscripts with drawing or gold silver/ other bright light colors
Stories from the bible
Made by monks/nuns

Parchment ppr (animal skin)
pumice powder
Sticky powder
Sheets cut into quire
Page layout
Holes on the side of the page, straight ruler to connect, then indent lines or draw on thin grey lines
Tracing of illumination
Graphite powder
Paint (light -> darker shades) and gold
Book binding (so complex omo)

No realism
Narrative intent only
Decorative foilage border

70mx50cm (but longer cuz missing scene)
Comissioned by
1)french or 2) williams half bro (bishop odo)
Called tapestry, but actually an embroidery
Broad central zone, borders top and bottom
Highly stylized tree mark the breaks
William n harold battle

King charlemagne
Sought to unite all people in one kingdom and convert subjects to christianity
Crownded holy roman emperor

Crusades: christians vs muslims
Holy land: Jerusalem
Take back holy artefacts -> more churches -> pilgrimage to worship the artifacts

Secular romanesque
White tower
King william the emperor
Royal power base
Defensive structure to prevent invasions
Romanesque bcuz
1) barrel vaults
2) rounded arches
3) thick walls


i hand wrote them… like whyyyyyy




Renaissance= rebirth
What is being born again? Classical learning (like that of the greek n roman)
after the period of “dark ages”
Revival of humanism, of not just art and aesthetics but also thinking.
Being curious of the world, aan questioning orthodoxy (vs medieval times where u just follow indoctrination/dogma)
Letting go of the dogma

Grew from medieval (gothic) into renaissance and didnt just change one night. Sometime in the 14th century, in italy, say florence. By the time 15th century, change is in full swing.

Madonna enthroned with angels and prophets
Mary n jesus surrounded by angels
Jesus as a small adult and not a normal bby (with big head)
Formulaic face of mother mary instead of an actual individual with emotion
Doesnt feel like a real space or time

Giotto bondone Madonna Enthroned
More individualism with mother mary
Contrast of gold and blue mary still brings focus to mary but additional use of triangular composition helps control the audiences gaze

Giottos other drawing in the chapel
3dimension developing
Illusion of depth – makes it more believable n relatable
Artist trying to paint sorrow n not just depiction of facts that happened
How to make ppl look at the desired focus point: actual lines that direct ur eyes + implied lines + color contrast of ghostly (almost theatrically) white jesus

Bubonic plague + plague dr
Knock back the renaissance many yrs
Ppl thought god was angry at them

Holy trinity by Masaccio
Unusual depiction of a usual scene, the crucifixion. Looks like he placed the cruxifiction in a (then) contemporary context- transported to italy and the 15th century
Perfect symmetry and triangular composition. Arch aligned with hand enclosing ur vision. ceiling lines pulling ur eyes to subj. White jesus vs dark bg
[Mathematical approach to make viewers see focal point]
Power of the patron: the two ppl at the bottom are the ppl who commissioned the art
Mathematical perspective of the space

Paolo uccello Battle of San Romano
Broken lances lying on the ground, pulling ur eyes

Andrea Mantegna Dead Christ
Interest in anatomy of the body



My group’s presentation :”)



Bronze for the door
Scientific understanding in ghibertis one -> depth of field

Donetello bronze
1.Going back to the medium of the greeks
2.Story of david and goliath-> size doesnt matter, ur brain does more
Florence was a small city but it had intellectual power
Warning to other city states that might see florence as easy opponent
3.Classical contrapastto
4. Sculpture is an individual (David’s face doesnt look like just piak on facial features)
Heart if the renaissance: individuality humanism . Man is the measure of all things
5.Perfect anatomy

Renaissance use greek column but like roman, they mix it all up
Loads of things with little classic references

Universal man: artist who can be more than just an artist
Epitome of knowledge, no longer just a “servent”
Not just ppl ask u do work n paintings, but u actually have schools

Boticelli : little barrell LMAO
Religious subject in modern context
Wrong context, wrong costume- Dressed as aristocrac florence. This is impossible cause they werent there when jesus was born
Who are all these ppl?? Can actually identify actual florentine ppl. Ppl of influence, dukes, bankers.
Ppl with a lot of money and who want to be seen as supporters of the church
Guy on the right with swagger. Confidence. Artist Inserts himself into the bible story, and with the other powerful ppl. Further more depics himself eith Haughty expression, self aware and confident stance. Staring directly at viewer-> status of the artist has changed.
Left top right- collapsed roman architecture. No logic for it being there

Birth of Venus
Birth of the middle class. New group of patrons
Classical contrapastto
Venus the Roman name if Aphrodite
Movement of water/waves is weird tho

La primevera :spring

Sfumato: fog. Aerial perspectives
Adoration of the kings
Triangle compositon
Black arc
Random horses
Random stairs building
Incomplete works
The last supper
Experimented with his paint: egg yolk into paint gave varnish. He was happy but the monks were not cause the paint flaked off after a few yrs
Put a door thru Leonardo pairing of gods feet
Jesus is a triangle
Italian landscape behind provides the white light : halo
Implied lines n actual lines leading u to Jesus
Moment jesus says one of u is going to betray me. Specific dramatic moment

Wrote in mirror writing???

Michelangelo david
Carara marble
Tree stump supprt

Pieta in st Peter’s basilica
Sistine chapel
Last judgement
Flayed skin of michalangelo

Raphael madonna of the meadows
Pyramidal composition
3/4 turn of her head
Did a lot of tondos (circular painting)
Religious subject dropped into modern italy: title suggest something made up
School of athens


WEEK 11 TUTORIAL:  Early Renaissance


Shift from focus on god to humanitas
But does not mean rejection of the god

luomo universale

Architecture + math + physics
Linear perspective
Vanishing point othoganels eye level

Math + physics

Albrecht Dürer

Expulsion from the garden of eden

Vasari’s lives !!!

Why the shift backwards to humanism
Due to the black plaque, ppl started to question where is god
So they started to rationalize instead of relying on the church
Scientific booms
Gothic no paintings or whatever, also deemed ugly, so the renaissance didnt want to copy them
Then coy who else? Be4 gothic was greek and Roman, thus they follow them.


WEEK 11 LECTURE: Famagusta 

French colonized cyprus
French venician ottoman brish empires in famagusta

Invention of cannons instead of using arrows now –> thick tall stone walls not enough
Ottoman army
Cyrpus was ottoman was 300yrs
Population dropped
City that was one of the richest in the world was slowly abandoned
Then british arrived, city was absolutely abandoned, and the stones were used as quarries for materials for other projects
Ww2 italy n uk at war, famagusta bombed

After independece
Power struggle when british left
Cyprus descended into civil war
Greek vs turkish cypriot
Turkish invaded cyprus, took the top 3rd of the island for turkish and expelled the greeks to rhe south cypriot

The north considered itself a republic.
Declared itself to be a country: The turkish republic of the northern cyprus.
But the rest of the world didnt (and still doesnt)

If u dont recognize the existence of a country, how can you send help = heritage in this unrecognized country cannot be helped = these sites will start to fall, lots of lost heritage over the many years




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