Principle of Design

Elements of design:

  • Point
  • Line
  • Shape
  • Volume
  • Direction
  • Size
  • Texture
  • Colour

Principles of design:

  • Unity

The relationship among the elements of a visual that helps all the elements function together. It gives a sense of oneness to a visual image. The words and the images work together to create meaning.


  • Harmony

All parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other. Can be achieved through repetition and rhythm.


  • Contrast

Arrangement of opposite elements in a piece so as to create visual interest, excitement and drama.


  • Repetition

Combination of elements or shapes repeated in a recurring and regular arrangement.

Rhythm is a combination of elements repeated, but with variations.


  • Movement

The path the viewer’s eye takes through the artwork, often to a focal area. It can be directed along lines, edges, shapes and colour. Objects seem to be moving in a visual image.


  • Balance

The distribution of the visual weight of objects, colours, texture, and space. If the design was a scale, these elements should be balanced to make a design feel stable.

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  • Emphasis

An area or object within the artwork that draws attention and becomes a focal point. Minimizing or toning down other composition elements in order to bring attention to the focal point.