Week 4: Felting



Really simple! Some wool felt and needles!



There are a few types of felting. In this class we learnt wet felting, dry felting and nuno felting.

Typically the steps are as follows:

Wet Felting

  1. Wet the felt with some water and soap.
  2. Use the needles to form into desired shape.
  3. Let dry.

Dry Felting

  1. Pull apart the felt fibres.
  2. Use the needles to form into desired shape.

Nuno Felting

Nuno Felting is the technique in which other materials are merged together with felt. For example, silks or tulle. Any other materials that can entangle themselves with felt will also work.



I experimented with wet and dry felting. I tried creating a large sheet of even felt, like the ones we usually get in stores. After that, then I tried felting in a design. I realised that it is harder to felt a design in since the sheet of felt has already merged on its own.

With dry felting, I tried to make some balls. This inspired me to create an eyeball, which result I really enjoyed. I think the quality of the felt was really good to represent the red veins on the eyeball.



Felting is a tedious process, but rewarding in the end. I learnt to be patient through the repeated poking and the stabs from the sharp needle.

Mad respect for those who do felting seriously! The results are awesome, and you can make so many things with this material. Soft or hard, flimsy or rigid. IT all depends on what you want to make, and the limit is your creativity!


Night to Light Festival: Art Skins and Monuments

I haven’t seen much from the Night to Light Festival other than the projection mapped works and the two works outside of ACM (which I originally thought was part of iLight), but I feel that the festival is a getting a little overshadowed as it is held simultaneously with iLight, which is relatively more established and well-known. On top of that, their locations intersect, and they both involve works using light and darkness. It is only expected that a layman is less likely to notice the difference between works participating in iLight or Night to Light.

Nevertheless, it was as exciting, because it was the first time I could actually properly observe projection mapped works on architecture.

However, I have to admit that I was a little underwhelmed, partly because I had way too high expectations from seeing works that appealed to me over the internet. To be fair, I also did not spend sufficient time to understand the works better.

I think that this is one of the more interesting facades, as the segments were used either in symmetry or to display different images. The eyes were particularly… eye-catching. They really were! The placement and sheer size made it noticeable, and was was interesting was how I felt that the eyes almost humanised the building. I felt that the building was personified in a way, and this establishes a connection between the viewer and the building.

This was one of the more disappointing ones, I feel, but it is hard to say because there are so many factors involved that made the experience not as enjoyable as the rest of the projection works.

I am pretty sure a lot of consideration has been put in to making this work, but this is my personal biased take.

The features of the building itself made it challenging to show any clear elements. There is no wide, clear plane, and I felt that the images were projected on anyways, making it hard to focus on them, and I felt that the features weren’t used well. They did have that short segment with the sand filling up the pillars, but that was pretty much it… I became uninterested in the story they were trying to tell because there was too much distraction. The trees were also a hindrance, and blocked the projection.

Is there a better way to use this building for projection mapping? I myself am not sure what would be effective in this case.

This was really interesting because I viewed this work with previous knowledge of the subject matter – I recently did a presentation on William Farquhar and his collection of natural history drawings. I enjoyed watching the drawings transform into a kaleidoscopic animation. I felt that the elements were used well, and the colours worked well too.

However, I do feel that the location was not the best, and that the wall was simply used as a screen. You can easily have this projection showcased anywhere else. There was nothing of it that contributed to the architecture, and there was nothing of the architecture that contributed to the projection.

Unfortunately, I didn’t see this work!

This is one of the works which I enjoyed more! Even though the scale is smaller, I feel that it was still impactful. The message is clearer in this work, and I enjoyed the narrative that it told. I liked how the features of the architecture was used, for example how the workers were projected on to the pillars, likening the two, and effectively illustrating that these workers were the foundation to Singapore. There are also great parts of the building that allowed for space for text, which instead of being disruptive, helps to convey the narrative better.

This work was also fun. I thought that the architectural features were aptly used, since the main focus could clearly be pointed out. The characters shown on the tower stood out, and the animations surrounding it enhanced the storytelling without being too distracting. Moreover, there is an actual space for the audience to lounge around while watching the work. It was much better and more intimate compared to the experience trying to view the ones on National Gallery, since they were so big and there wasn’t enough distance from where we stood to view the work.

They were really fun animations. The colours and patterns definitely catch people’s attention. It reminds me of The Resident as there are kaleidoscopic elements too. Overall, it didn’t stand out as much for me.

Social Practice Art – Hmmmmm

This was an eye-opening read. Throughout my art-making years, I have more or less come across the concept of this “social practice art”, but I have never really thought about it deeply.

In my previous post on Michelangelo Pistoletto’s works, I talked a little bit about how in our current age, there are no more boundaries to art. You have many different types of art forms, many different interpretations, many different messages, artists, values, etc. There is no one way to describe art. But that’s the tricky part – what can or cannot be considered art, when there is no clear restrictions, no clear requirements?

A moment could be art – but why? Take Banksy’s “Girl with Balloon”.

The shredding was a deliberate act by Banksy. Even though it was supposed to be shredded all the way through, it still delivers a message – one that I interpreted as the value of his works drops as soon as it is sold. Banksy’s works are on the streets. Graffiti works that are smartly placed, sometimes delivering political or social messages. In essence, street art is a freedom of expression, sometimes of a rebellious nature. It is put out there for everyone to see. For passersby, for the people. Putting a price tag on it, selling it to a “collector” takes it away from its audience, strips it of its value as an art work for the streets.

However, that act in itself is considered performance – a statement. It is then deemed even more valuable than before it was shredded.

I can’t help but think that a big factor as to why this happened is that it was by Banksy. The reputation of the artist itself already affects the way an art work would be perceived. There is a power to Banksy’s name.

If it were to be made by an unknown, would it be as valuable?

If more others talked about it, if it gained more traction, ignited more discussion, outraged more people, would it make an art work more valuable?

Okay, going back to social practice art. Why is it considered art? What differentiates it from philanthropic activities, from environmental, social, political movements? The line is blurred here, just as it is with everything else.

“… raised an obvious question: What does it mean to celebrate art-as-activism in the presence of real live social movements?”

I’m not sure where I stand on this, but I do feel that it’s pretty neat to live in an age where we have freedom to discuss and debate on just about any topic and that there is an openness in society to dwell on important social issues.

Thoughtful Interaction Design

Thoughtful Interaction Design

A Design Perspective on Information Technology

Jonas Löwgren and Erik Stolterman


This was another eye-opening read. The more I delve into this realm we call the art world, the more I find out that I have no idea how big it actually is. You can even say it is infinite. There is so much to being an artist, a designer, than to just make something pretty.

This time, I learnt about being a responsible, thoughtful designer.

This excerpt talks in terms of digital artifacts, which according to it, constitute the environment and nature in which we live. They play a huge role in accompanying us in our day to day activities, be it at home or at work. They influence our development, the way we think, the way we manoeuvre this world.

To design digital artifacts is to design people’s lives.


The truth weighed in on me. I hadn’t realised how much power there is in design. In the physical world, I take a look at my surroundings. I’m in a classroom. I am using a laptop, on a table. I sit on a chair. There are lights above me that illuminate the room. The door is next to me. The whiteboard is across me. I take a sip from my bottle. I needed that.

Every single thing was invented, designed by someone. And now it’s an irreplaceable part of everyone’s lives.

Other than that, there are also interfaces. There are so many things whose way of interaction we are already familiar with. We know how to open a door using the handle, knob or even just using the act of pushing. We know how to interpret the clock. We know how to fill a bottle and use it. Similarly, there are interactions in the digital world that we learn and we are familiar with, because we’ve lived with it our whole lives.

Being a thoughtful designer: being reflective

Well at least I’m somewhere. Reflecting upon this read got me reflecting on my experience as a consumer and a user, other than as an artist.

It urges me to think about my role as an artist or designer. What are the results, good or bad, of doing design in different ways?

Being thoughtful: caring for your own design abilities, designs you produce, how the world will be changed by your design ideas and decisions. 

There is an interesting idea of understanding design as knowledge construction, where the main “products” are not artifacts, but knowledge. I can see why, since it does become information that we users learn over time.

In this knowledge construction, there is an important factor, which is articulation – a requirement so that people can actually respond to the artifact or work. Otherwise, how would people interact with it? There needs to be a degree of clarity and understanding.

Looking at how rapid technology is advancing, it may be plausible to say, what is the point of being reflective, dwelling on meaning, when things are constantly changing? New technology is being developed everyday.

However, in the midst of evolving technology, there is still an essential role of being thoughtful and reflective. The impact is still right there, having something constantly changing does not diminish the importance or influence of design on human lives. Design is complex that way.

It is more so complex especially when in this age, everyone is more open on ideas and concepts. The design of digital artefacts is largely unbounded. As interaction designers, what is our material???

Even language is considered a material, no? Novels, manuals, prayers, poems, fantasy worlds, constitutions, textbooks.

Our bodies can be materials too. In interaction design, is not the action, the moments, the body materials too?

the designer wields significant power, and with such power comes responsibility.

This is where it hit me how important the role of a designer is. But…


What is Good Design?

fast, efficient


user interface intelligibility

basic functions satisfy user needs

intelligent, adaptive

problem-solving capabilities

slow or fast

What are the intentions and expectations in specific situations? Are users novice or experienced? What are the ideological considerations – democratic, cultural, environmental?

To achieve good design, there is a never ending process of thoughtful reflection.


Core Concepts


The designer is the one who actively takes part in the shaping of the digital artifact, while the client is the one who contracts the designer, a.k.a. the money machine and the one who makes the final decisions. The user, meanwhile, is the one who will use the implemented design artifact.


What Is Design Theory?

Design theory is seen as a way to specify the outcome of the design process. 

Several design theories advocate an environmental approach – influencing design work in the direction of more environmentally sound products. This I feel, is meaningful because the environmental threat is a real one, if we aren’t going to take care of the world we live in, who will?

In any case, every theory is formulated with an intention and a purpose, so it is also important to discuss design in a way that helps interaction design.

A First Sketch of the Design Process

Combination of three elements: designer, resources, situation.

Every design is a change of our life world; the designer influences our overall experience of the world as a pleasant or ugly place to spend our lives in


“With designed artifacts, processes, systems, and structures we decide our relations with each other, society, and nature.”


“Every digital artifact restricts our space of possible actions by permitting certain actions, promoting certain skills, and focusing on certain outcomes. To some extent, the user has to adapt to the artifact.”

Design includes responsibility, because it deals with profound and existential issues in a very tangible way. It is something that directly affects human lives.


Design and Society

Every design, however small, is a part of what can be seen as the largest design project of them all – the joint design of the world as a place for human life.

In designing, there are technical, social, ideological and political consequences. These are what we should consider as a designer, as designers have the power to change and influence the development of society.

As an artist, do we have the same responsibility?

I feel that at least to a certain extent, we do. Just as humans, our actions have consequences. Similarly, as artists, our works have consequences too. Good or bad, it’s usually not up to us to decide, but at least we have the power to influence the outcome.

An example of a work which I feel reflected some points in this reading is Strawpocalypse by photographer Benjamin Von Wong.

Bringing back up some references from the Social Practice Art reading, this installation cannot exactly be said to constitute a whole social environmental movement, but to some extent I feel that it is, or at least supports an existing effort to be more mindful of our waste production, of our environment.

I feel that the process of making this installation itself reflects thoughtful interaction design. The way they collected used straws instead of using new ones itself is thoughtful. This is not new, of course, making art through recycling or upcycling.

The result of the installation is something impactful, putting humans in a smaller scale, highlighting the magnitude of this environmental issue.

Week 3: Fabric of Thread, Plastic Fusing

R  E  F  L  E  C  T  I  O  N  

I joined the class later than my classmates, and was a little lost at first, but soon I saw how fun it was! The technique we learnt in this class was rather new to me. I knew of water soluble material before, but never exactly knew in detail what it entails. Getting to have a go at it on the sewing machine is really fun!

I really like the freedom that comes with fabric of thread. You can make any design with only your imagination as the limit. Moreover, it is also a way to reuse any waste thread or fabric. You can make waste into art, or something useful! Other than that, the nature of the water soluble material also allows for the possibility of sculpture.

I think that the outstanding quality of this technique is it creating beauty amidst chaos, and it brings to my mind abstract expressionism. Creating art by chance, by randomisation, I think that the art is not only defined by its finished product, but also by its process, and the moments that go into making it.