The Vampire Bat – A Prototype

The Prototype

For the vampire bat prototype, I decided to focus on the bat’s wings, since it is very much different from the wings of birds. Yet, it is similar to the human hands, but with web, forming the wings. What I brought forward to this project is the hinge mechanism from Project 2: Kokopelli!

This is what I got!

Take a look at The Vampire Bat – A Prototype in action!

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Kokopelli’s Sound Shaper: Body Part Research & Textures


Pleasant: Water Cooler in ADM (Flowy)

Unpleasant: Security Alarm in ADM (Resembles water droplets)

Sound Waves on Audacity

Audacity file on water cooler

Audacity file on alarm

Body Parts



  • Elbow is the joint connecting the proper arm to the forearm
  • Marked on the upper limb by the medial and lateral epicondyles and the olecranon process
  • Classified as a synovial joint, functionally as a simple hinge joint that allows for flexion and extension.
  • Occurs at the junction of the humerus or upper arm bone
  • The humerus forms the upper part of the point and widens near the end to form the medial and lateral epicondyles (two bony processes felt either side of the elbow joint)
  • Made up of three bones: humerus, ulna and radius.

Bones in the elbow

  • The ulna is a cup-shaped structure that is situated on the inside of the joint which allows articulation (state of being jointed) with the humerus
  • Three distinct joints in the elbow – hinge joint, the humeroradial joint and the pivot joint
  • Hinge joint allows the elbow to bend and straighten
  • Humeroradial joint allows for flexion and extension
  • Pivot joint allows for rotation of the forearm


-important ligament of the elbow are the medial collateral ligament (inside of the elbow) and the lateral collateral ligament (outside of the elbow)

Angular Movement at the Elbow


Movement Angular Range (Degrees)
Flexion / Extension 145
Pronation 75
Supination 80


Movement   Definition
Flexion A movement decreasing the angle between articulating bones
Pronation A movement that can be performed by the lower-arm/ wrist and also by the ankle/foot

Pronation of a forearm is the rotation of the forearm turning the palm of the hand inwards towards the body.

Supination A movement that can occur at the lower-arm and wrist.

Supination of the forearm is the rotation of the forearm turning the hand outwards away from the body


The ankle joint is a synovial joint located in the lower limb. It is divided into the upper ankle joint (tibiotarsal articulation) and lower ankle joint (talotarsal articulation).


Upper ankle joint

  • Is a hinge joint.
  • Main task is to enable dorsiflexion (stretching) and plantar flexion (bending).


Dorsiflexion (Flexion) Produced by the muscles in the anterior (nearer the front)  compartment of the leg.
Plantarflexion (Extension) Produced by the muscles in the posterior (nearer the rear/hind end) compartment of the leg.


  • Composes of the three bones: Tibia (Shin bone), Fibula (Calf bone) & Talus (Ankle bone).
  • The tibia and fibula form the “ankle mortise” which consists of the medial and lateral malleoli. In the distal end of the ankle mortise sits the trochlea tali, the upper surface of the talus.
  • This allows the articular surfaces to glide upon each other and assures the cartilage surfaces to move freely.

Dorsiflexion | Flexion Is the movement by which the dorsal (top) aspect of the foot and the anterior (front) aspect of the tibia (shin) move closer together.  (E.g. up and down – sitting and standing or walking up and down stairs).
Plantarflexion | Extension Is the opposite movement that departs the dorsal aspect of the foot away from the tibia.
Abduction Is moving the distal end of the foot away from midline, or away from the center of the body.
Supination Appears when the medial edge of the foot is lifted off the grounds.
Pronation Is the reverse movement of supination, when the lateral edge of the foot is lifted off the ground.


References for elbow:



Functions of A Hinge

A Hinge is a moveable joint or mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them.


Texture for water cooler (pleasant)

Texture for beeping of the automated security alarm

Texture for beeping of the automated security alarm

Texture for beeping of the automated security alarm

Check out the full PDF on Jiayi’s site here!

Pandora Revisited

For the first project for Form and Visualization, we got to look back and revisit the Pandora project we did back in Semester 1. For Pandora Revisited, the words I received were pack, skew and reflect.

Below are some images of my module and how it reflects the words:-

*foam version of the module in exact dimensions*


Making my mould for my module, I used the silicon method.

Preparing for the pouring of the silicon.

After the pouring of the silicon for the making of the ice-tray.

After the silicon dries. Hot glue added to the top because there were holes.


There are many combinations of arrangement for my module that I find amusing! Below are some combinations:-



Isometric – Individual

Isometric – Combined

The City of Voids – Individual Moodbox

For the City of Voids, before we started doing up our final mood box and plug-in city, we were to work with the sounds we had created to build our own mood boxes! Here are the instrument we worked with!


Audacity Sound Snalysis

Frontal View


The Dominant -The yellow and white parts are the the resonating tone bars, and the white part is to capture the resonance and the ringing of the bars.

The sub-doninant -The pink parts, illustrating the woody sound of the claves.

The sub-ordinate – The blue triangles illustrates the finger cymbals.

The clear ringing sound of the resonating tone bars is depicted by the swirling of the metal wires across the model (yellow and white). The blocky beats of the claves are represented by the pieces of wood piece that are placed at the top of the structure (pink). The high pitch sound of the finger cymbals is shown through the tiny triangles on the walls of the structure(blue).


After listening to the audio and the audio sounded magical, melancholic, zen, as if we are stepping into a new dimension, hence I added the element of secrecy and surprise by using the opening segment to my mood box.

The finger cymbals after every bar is a sub-ordinate, yet it has a wide presence in the audio, its high pitch and loud. It brought characteristic to the audio itself. Also, triangles are used to depict its high pitch, since a triangle has 3 sharp edges. Hence, to not shadow the SO, I added a tiny interactive touch to the finger cymbals.


3D Project 3: Scent – 2D Planes & 3D Planes

For the first lesson of Project 3, we were to bring two scents along with us, one that evokes a pleasant memory and the other one that evokes an unpleasant memory.

Here are my scents..!

Pleasant Memory

The scent that I brought that evokes a pleasant memory is a perfume from The Body Shop.


The perfume was the very one I wore for my first date. Then as an adolescent, I often look up to my mom in terms of dressing up and even learning how to put make-up for the first time. I knew I had to dress up and that also means smelling pleasant. Instinctively, I went to my mother’s cupboard of perfume and picked a random one.

Hence, this scent has since reminded me of my first date.

Unpleasant Memory

The scent that I brought was the scent of moth balls. (My roommate happen to have them innocent)


When I was very much younger, at the age of 5 to 12 years old, I was left alone at my grandmother’s house very often. This is due to the busy schedule that my parents had and I remember the lonely nights I had to spend over at my grandmother’s place because of that. As an elderly, my grandmother loves to place moth balls around the house to keep it smelling fresh and to remove the water vapour in the air that causes things to get mouldy. Hence, the iconic thing about my grandmother’s house is the smell of moth balls, especially in her room where I use to spend the night. The smell of moth balls brings me back to the unpleasant childhood experience I had to go through being left alone at my grandmother’s place. (Even so, I really love my grandmother! She watched me grew up!)

Learning about 2D Planes and 3D Planes

During class itself, we were taught the difference between 2D Planes and 3D Planes.

2D Planes Side View – A line

3D Plane Side View – Looks much like a ribbon

2D Planes

3D Planes

Straight Axis Curved Axis
Bent Axis Broken Axis
Curved Axis Twisted Axis
Complex Axis (Combination of Curved & Bent) Grouped Axis

Thereafter, we were to construct a 3D model that consists of a dominant, sub-dominant and a sub-ordinate using strips of paper of differing widths.


Since we are required to describe scents in a manner or two, I decided to research on the ways I can use adjectives to describe them.



You can view the full PDF here: Intangible touchable scents



ITADAKIMASUI! For 3D Project 2, we got to deal with food as well as Ikebana!

For 3D Project 2, we were to experiment with curvilinear shapes — the cylinder, cone and sphere. An upgrade from Project 1, we were to place these shapes of an angle of each shape’s principle axis.

As a result, the models will be of a certain type of balance, namely independently balanced (of more than 45 degrees to the ground), dependent (2 or more objects leaning against each other) and precarious (more than 45 degrees to the ground)

Apart from that, the season I got for my Ikebana is Autumn.


Research about Ikebana and related food!

Ikebana is a Japanese art of flower arrangement. Due to its rich history in Japan, different styles then flourished as well over time.

  1. Rikka

Rikka, otherwise known as standing flowers style was developed to incorporate the beauty of landscape into the arrangement of flowers. One key thing to note about this style is that there are nine branches that each represent an element of nature.

taken from:

2. Nageirebana

Nageirebana, otherwise known as thrown in flowers is an arrangement that does not include a structured way of design. It is characterised by a bundle of tightly grouped stems that form a triangular three-branched asymmetrical arrangement


taken from:

3. Jiyuka

Jiyuka otherwise known as free-style consist of creatively designed Ikebanas that is not confined to using flowers. It is the modernised method of Ikebana in the late 20th century.


taken from:

With all the Ikebana research done up, I decided to work towards the Jiyuka style of Ikebana. Along with some of my food research, I decided to use a cob of corn as the cylinder, a tomato as the sphere and coloured mayonnaise as the cone. Since autumn season has a spectrum, I decided to focus on the later part of autumn where it is going to turn cold, otherwise known as the sweater weather.

The tomato and corn together can be used to brew soup to keep the people warm during the autumn season. Something native to Japan would be their creamy tomato soup.


taken from:


Corn was also chosen because Japanese love grilled corn. It even has a Japanese name called tōmorokosh. How the Japanese love to prepare them is by briefly boiling them in salt water and then grill it with the use of soy sauce.


Rice was used together with tomato at the base because of Japan’s iconic sushi, which is largely made out of rice. I coloured them in orange and mushed it together with the tomato to bring out the change in colour during the season of autumn.

How I included the mayonnaise into the model is by first putting them into a plastic bag then squeezing them out of a small hole to create the conical shape. (which flattened after a good 15 minutes). Mayonnaise is largely loved by a majority of the Japanese as seen in their inclusion of mayonnaise into sushis. Also, Japan has their very own type of mayonnaise that they are very fond of. Therefore, I decided to go with mayonnaise that is coloured in yellow to match the colour palette of the season autumn.


Japan’s historic love of corn

My Sketch Models!


in a dependent balance