And down to the final project which is called Zine. Thank you for this experience of which I got a chance to use InDesign software, this project gives me an opportunity to further developed my skills with using such software. InDesign is necessary to create magazine, reports, pamphlet and many other prints layout that is vital for my future use.

Zine is one of the beneficial project I have done, upon receiving the brief, I was pretty excited that we were required to share our journey or experience during the foundation year thus collating some of our work into a magazine like layout.

Throughout the foundation year, I have acquired pretty much a lot, from generating ideas, sketching and doodling. I did quite a lot of research for inspiring work and references of artists work through online and print. It has been a fruitful year. what I loved most during these time was generating ideas and then proceeding with the execution on the desired designs. Not to forget, I’m really grateful to have such wonderful course mates. They give me beneficial and constructive feedbacks to further improve on my design work.

For my zine, it was much simpler because I used back all the the basic design principles knowledge that I have acquired throughout my foundation year, but I still do some research, looked at some inspiring designs from the shelves and online as well. There are plenty of ideas which I find it useful for my zine design, and the minimalist look I want to achieved. I also came across a very decent Zine design website which inspired me. For instance, the bench.li and trendlist.org. they have many layout ideas, using of the shapes and the spaces. Do check them out because there are so many kind of style and inspiring work.

My zine element has a lot to do with what I have learnt throughout my foundation year, such as the basic shapes, colors, patterns, texture and sizes. Making use of what I have learnt and applied it to my zine.

Allow me to present you my zine and sharing with you how my design works came about…

My Adventure

Front Cover Spread1Spread2 Spread3 Spread4spread5a

Back Cover

My zine has a very minimal look yet it supposes to grab the viewer attention. What I meant by minimalistic is the used of simple shapes, primary colors, meek patterns and lines and giving a generous breathing area or space for my reader. I have always like my work to be clean yet sleek. For myself, I don’t quite like heavy patterns or too much information. I would like people to think rather than putting all the information that is probably unnecessary.  I used back my illustration style from the EGO project during semester one. I tried to keep all my pages consistent throughout which is one of the greatest challenged for this project since most of my work are of the different style and medium.

My cover page was the most time consuming but after completing them, I really love the aesthetic and dynamic look to it, I felt it was worth the time. My cover page which I gave a title called “My Adventure”. It pretty much sums up what I have learnt and often seen throughout. It also contained all my best work for the different projects for 2D module. It supposed to set the the style that I want to achieved for the rest of my pages. Using the principle of Balance, to layout all the elements into one A5 Page. Created a hierarchy and allowed readers to read from top left to bottom right. The lines, shapes, patterns and colors direct the reader eyes from one point to another. It is not easy to balance quite a number of different elements, but I managed to put them together.

My second and third page, I showcased one of my best worked called “EGO” I used different background colors such as the grey and yellow to create a contrast, however I connected them by having an illusion white line with a drop shadow across to indicate to the reader that they are linked, as well as direct them to another page.

For the body copy, I created a hierarchy such as the title, subtitle and body, for the title I used a sign painter font that gave a handwriting effect.  As for the subtitle and body I used Helvetica fonts for reader to read the text easily as well as it is pleasing to the eye. I added some drop shadows, patterns and shapes to complement the plain grey background. As for page three, I showcased one of my best work which represents me climbing the mountain and achieving my dreams. The Yellow background grabs the attention of my reader and leaving a generous breathing space on the upper half of the page.

My fourth and fifth page, I make used of the rule of third layout. I wanted to display a spread of my illustration work. I used a light grey background and overlaid it with diagonal white lines to add subtle patterns to the plain background. I contrast it with a diamond shaped masked with my fire burning illustration work to emphasize a symbol of desire and dreams. Surrounded by a typography of “DREAM”.

On the other page consist of some text and words. On the lower half is a compilation of the “EGO” Project. Having a decent breathing space on top and bottom so as to lead the viewer to the image and give some emphasis. With a montage of some work I added a drop shadow with a decent distance of 40mm to give a sense of the Image floating, giving a 3-dimentional finishing.

One of my favorite spread would be the sixth and seventh page. Showcased my “RHYME” project, the original images are of black and white, but I overlaid and masked them with the basic shapes and colors. Distinguished by their sizes but still considered their unity by slightly overlaying them side by side. Viewing it from the Biggest to the smallest. I Just loved the way I layout my work here, giving a huge emphasis on the strongest elements which I learnt from 2D module. A little twist to my background with a solid diagonal shape in between the diagonal patterns that I merged with.

As for page eight and nine, I’m keeping it as minimal as possible. There was a slight difficulty for the work over here because It was originally a 3-Dimentional medium which I personally felt it was one of the best and It would be a waste not to showcased it in my zine. So I edited the image and converted them into monochromatic colors, in order to be consistent throughout my zine. I masked the design into both upward and downward triangular shapes. Separating the two by their opacity value such that one being light and another dark. These pages in particular, I intentionally used the design principal of space, to give the eye a rest and define the importance. With triangular shape I lead the eye to the text next to it as its shape could direct movement.

The last spread I combined patterns, shapes and the used of bold colors. The triangular shapes lead the eye from top to the next page. The most important image is the “Tarzan” therefore I placed two triangle pointing in middle of a circle to define its importance. The color that I used, such as yellow supposed to evoke pleasant, cheerful feelings. Also yellow is an attention getter. As for the green, it is the color of nature which is my favorite and complement well with the yellow. For this I used dark green which supposed to evoke ambition.

Noticed I used many shapes, this is for me to organized information through connection and separation. I used them to create movement and depth as well. Apart from that I would like to convey mood and emotion. It supposed to emphasize and create entry points and areas of interest that lead the eye from one design element to the next.

For the write-ups, it was supposed to be inspiring and simple enough to understand what I’m trying to convey. All this wouldn’t have worked without the help of Professor Shirley Lim. THANK YOU SO MUCH for the guidance and consultation throughout the foundation year. And not to forget, all my fellow course mates that has been giving me endless support, and constructive feedbacks.


Point of View Final Outcome



I downloaded the images from internet, the interior of the train, tarzan and vines, Portray an image of Tarzan swinging through handle bars instead of swinging on tree vines he took the Downtown line. Since Downtown line goes to nature place such as Hill view, botanic garden and fort Canning, A little of local context, making Tarzan life a lot easier. give the entire image a posterise look to balance the whole composition added a slight blur effect and focus on tarzan to show a sense of movement.



A little Cheeky, using the term fantasies to gave an idea of Tarzan appearing right infront of Jane wearing such outfit. Choosing the right background is crucial, as i don’t want Tarzan to be out of focus, but i guess the background for this one is really suitable for Tarzan, added a bouquet of flower, bow tie, french cuff and masking it on his hand. Added a lighting effect to to show emphasis. and changing his brown undergarment to black makes it more slick!



TarzanCityAs for this one, I combined Jungle and city largely because I want to incorporate a feel of nature in city. And how it may perceive for Tarzan, if he comes to the city. Download a picture of the Merlion park. Making it look fully green with the trees and vines.


Tarzan Social M

I particularly love this, composed it such that Tarzan is having fun swinging and able to snapchat himself, “Ooo iyo iyo” perhaps the only language he will type. Added the Rainbow filter as it is an iconic filter for snapchat.



One of the life learning point for me, that no matter who the person maybe, be it another human, animal or creature, if they show affectionate connection, the latter is like a family and always enjoy being together, therefor I would like to show here how Tarzan with gorilla enjoy so much being together. Introduced this background scene, to showcase the bonding of Tarzan with his gorilla family. its is tricky to get the images of gorillas and tarzan and there is perspective for the background, but i managed to get the one that is pretty close to the right perspective for all the characters in here.



I really thought this one is funny and I guess many of us wouldn’t have thought of it. So ever wonder do Tarzan have his own wardrobe? Or even a few pairs of undergarments? It is hard, but if Tarzan really do have a wardrobe, it would just be appropriate. So I planned to have a wardrobe design for Mr Tarzan with his everyday undergarment. I photo-manipulate everything and made a wardrobe that has a jungle field to it. Created a hanger for his undergarments from monday to sunday.

Point of View – Process

I think this is an interesting project where we could use any subject and look at it from different point of view which we could fill in any kind of co subject hence interpret or express it visually. After a few brainstorming I decided to go with the subject “Stairs” and “Tarzan” for me both were equally fun and seems to be a lot of ideas that we could play with.



I consulted Prof Shirley, she helped me give constructive feedbacks and generate some ideas during the discussion. It is really good to have discussed as we will be able to generate more ideas. Therefore, after further thinking and analyzing, I think It is better that I work with “Tarzan” due to the subject being more interesting plus reminiscing back my childhood time where I watched my first ever Tarzan Disney Movie in cinema. It was really a great movie; the storyline was really good. There are a lot of emotional scenes and life learning point.


Let me list down my final Six after the consultation that I’m working on.








I did some doodling and sketches that comes out of my head…




About this one I perceived Jane to be someone who is very well educated and very hard to impress, however he thinks differently about Tarzan. With that idea, I think it is best to describe her having huge crush with the jungle boy but does not want to admit. But all along she already falls for him. With that, I would like to interpret this expression by having Tarzan bringing a bunch of flowers for Jane whilst is was just a fantasies.




One of the life learning point for me, that no matter who the person maybe, be it another human, animal or creature, if they show affectionate connection, the latter is like a family and always enjoy being together, therefor I would like to show here how Tarzan with gorilla enjoy so much being together.





As for this one, I combined Jungle and city largely because I want to incorporate a feel of nature in city. And how it may perceive for Tarzan, if he comes to the city. I’m so sure that he will be bringing all the nature vibes to city. I think it is really cool to have vines and a lot of greens in city. Just to feel more nature and calmness. I’m going to use Singapore context buildings for the aesthetic.





I really thought this one is funny and I guess many of us wouldn’t have thought of it. So ever wonder do Tarzan have his own wardrobe? Or even a few pairs of undergarments? It is hard, but if Tarzan really do have a wardrobe, it would just be appropriate. So I planned to have a wardrobe design for Mr Tarzan with his everyday undergarment.





I’m not sure what Tarzan would do if he uses Social media, but I figured out it is going to be completely funny if he were to Instagram himself selfie. So I decided to have him post his own photo but the caption is just “oh Iyo Iyo!” since that is one of his language.






A little of local context, making Tarzan life a lot easier by having a Downtown line all by himself, he could swing from bars to bars and travel to his destination. Why downtown line? Hahahaha since Downtown line goes to many nature places such as Hill view, botanic garden and fort Canning, and I’m sure Tarzan would love these places.


I decided to go with digital photo manipulation approach this time, and making them almost impossible to be in a composition. Using images that I could find in the internet and mask them in a composition.


Typographic Portrait – Final

So here you go! The final four typographic portrait, I’m really satisfied with the overall concept of my typographic portrait. It is one of the most fun experimentation I did so far. I think I have met the objective of my concept which to create a 3-dimentional feel to the art work. I used various tools and materials to work and craft. I don’t really used digital here, except for layout and some prints.

Let me briefly share the idea and the story behind each portrait…


FullSizeRender copy


Nature has always been part of me, I always wanted to have my own plantation, for me it gives a sense of satisfaction to have your own garden when you see it grows and bloom. Hence my idea came about to create a miniature garden which has my initals on it.

Initially I was thinking of using a real soil, but to think again I though I would like to experiment more by creating a similar effect with food product. And there goes my “edible garden”. I carefully play with typography using the parsley, vanilla essence sticks, tomatoes cherry and chocolates. All these are my favorites. I personally enjoyed much doing this.

I arrange them subtly to make it as natural as possible. Playing around with the space and making it rotate to a certain angle to evoke a sense of fun to it. In terms of color, I think I’ve choose the right one like red tomato cherry and green parsley that complement the whole dark brown look.




One of the cutest and simplest aesthetic look, but I believe it sent out the message across. I feel it look like a real climbing wall that I could climb anytime, Hahaha! I used some textured background like the wooden light brown wall that I usually see if I’m at climbing gym. I cut some parts, to create an inclined ramp, nailed and glue it so that it wont came off.

I used colored clay and making it much more dynamic by mixing two colors, for each group. Starting from letter “I”, is blue and pink which means reliability, caring and nurture, “B”, white and black that never go wrong together symbolizes pure, peace and also power and strength I posses during climbing. “X”, is red and green, which often we call watermelon, as there are such colors of tiles during my climbing, it also symbolized relaxation and energy, that I often get during climbing. “Z” is black and orange, which is consider to be powerful, cheerfulness and enthusiasm. And lastly “B” which is yellow and black that suggest liveliness and optimism.

All the tiles are given a thoughtful placement, with each letter that have a different color, it could be separated but still perceive as one group, this is the principle of gestalt that prof. Shirley taught.


FullSizeRender_2 AND I’M A TAILOR

The idea of tailor came greatly because I enjoyed doing it, not that I’m a tailor but both my maternal and paternal grandparent were once a tailor. And I think I adopted the skills from them, even my mom used to make dresses and clothes for herself and my family, and I enjoyed watching it since I was little, until appoint that she let me try using it and that were I picked up the skill to sew. Hahaha!

Therefore, this came back to the simplest set of tool which is the pin or needle and thread that tailor essentially need to make clothes. Just by using the tools, I thought it worked pretty well. I bought a khaki colored linen fabric for the background and used it to cover the Styrofoam which is supposed to be poked by the pins that would be a supporting or anchoring point for my thread on later stage.

I started putting the pins first and followed by attaching the thread, it may look easy but trust me my hands are quite big for such a small piece. Hahahah! I have to carefully poke the pin ensure the space between each pins are good and not too near or far. I intentionally made the “X” bigger to create some emphasis and also added a black thread to give some aesthetic so it wont be too boring.




And so, since the start the semester I took an elective which is called symmetry. Ad there is one topic that discuss about the Islamic art. I’ve been fascinated by the pattern and so this gives me the idea of creating a papercut plus Islamic pattern to indicate that I’m a Muslim, because I think the Islamic art is the best representation of me being a Muslim. With this idea I created a typography in Photoshop of my initial “IBXZB” but giving it an Arabic font style. It was an idea from Prof Shirley and I think it is genius. So I further explore on it, and these gives me idea to include and Islamic pattern or art for my fonts.

Since most of my artwork is like a 3-dimentional, I decide to give some perspective to this one too, using blue foam and cut out my name, this was the hardest part I did so far, it is really time consuming because the word is small and cutting them need a lot of patience especially around the edge.

After I got my blue foam cut out, I cut all my patterns paper according to the way I wanted for each letters, I mixed and matched them around and to give some variation, i added a subtle background, again it is islamic pattern but it is white in colour. White background to give contrast to the type. and white also mean pure which is associated with islam religion.

I definitely love the final outcome. Overall I’m really satisfied and proud of this work of mine.

Typographic Portrait – Process/Execution/Experimentation

Well, I’m glad to be able to finalize the six occupation or activities that I want to work on, without thinking much, I decide to use my Instagram account username to be part of the portrait, and that is “IBXZB”. I strategically planned to use this text across all my design just to ensure the consistency, although my design varies form one another.


Therefore, I came out with some sketches, after doing a research. Doodle out some designs as well before consulting Professor Shirley.




A couple of feedbacks and constructive comments was given to me by Prof. Shirley, what work best and what’s not to be include. I asked some opinion of my friends to if it works. The comments are pretty much positive. Hence I started experimenting some of my design which seems really fun for me. I went to get some materials and start to explore with them and tried making something out of it.




I’m IBXZB and I’m a Tailor.

It was fun using just the essential material for all tailor to work on their piece of fabrics which is needle and thread. I’ve gotten a red colored linen thread because it has a strong contrast when I laid a khaki colored linen fabric on the background. I used a method such that It creates a 3-dimentional form. I thought this idea was quite cool because I’ve seen it somewhere before so I adopted that and translate it to my own interpretation.


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I’m IBXZB and I’m a Rock-Climber

I’ve been fascinated with the tiles that I usually hung on when I do rock climbing, hence I thought I could make something out of it. The idea of arranging the tiles is pretty much similar to that arranging typography. Hence it would be really cool if I have my own rock wall with the tiles spelt out as my name. I bought some colored clay to make the tiles and some pins to create such that it looks like a metal nuts. I also used the soft compressed wood to create the background and made a little inclined ramp to give a feel of real rock wall.

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I’m IBXZB and I’m a Muslim

I thought I would like to do this digitally, but after a careful consideration, I decided to make a paper cut. This idea of using some Islamic art elements to include would be an impactful one. As it is the foundation of being a Muslim. Therefore, went on the internet and find the best Islamic pattern to interpret my design. There are many in the internet but I choose the one that has a great contrast for the whole look that I would like to achieved and that is a simple background but evoking foreground. For the typeface, initially I wanted to use Arabic fonts, but after approaching Prof. Shirley, she suggested an English font with an Arabic style instead, which is genius. So I created them in the Photoshop and printed the fonts. I also printed the Islamic prints for the later stage.

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I’m IBXZB and I’m a Gardener

Gardener is considered one of the best occupation because you are working and enjoying the nature at the same time. for this particular design I would like to evoke a sense of real garden, using the elements such as the soil, plants and fruits to be in cooperated in my work. After some out of the box thought, I was inspired by some food that look like a garden concept. Therefore, I decided to do a little experiment on making a DIY soil out of food. And the closest I could get was chocolate compound and chocolate chips. And some other parts to be use with edible product if possible.

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Typographic Portrait Research

Upon receiving this new project, I’m was pretty much excited to create a typographic portrait of my own name, it could be my name or initials. Interestingly how this works is that we are suppose to produce a total of six A5 size of “MY NAME IS, AND I’M A…..”. it could be an occupation, feelings, personalities or trait of our self.


So my first approach on this was to list down as many as possible all my dream occupation, my hobbies and some of my current activities that I’m doing which is Rock Climbing.


After short listed a few, and went on to choose six, which is the requirement for the project. Hence I decided to work on, “I’m a firefighter”, “I’m a graphic design”, “I’m a Muslim”,” I’m a tailor”, “I’m a Rock climber” and “I’m a gardener”.  Each of these play an important role in my life and have a great story to tell.


The aim of this project is to use as end in itself, meaning minimizing supporting imagery. However, it must be conceptually driven solutions and letter forms are combined with abstract images that express the intended message. I did further research on some existing typography to get inspiration from them. It is definitely not easy. A lot of careful thoughts need to be done, especially if we want our concept and the final execution to be an amazing and worth looking at.


I had in mind some specific technique I want to work on, like crafting and digital methods after looking at some inspirational work from the internet. I also picked up some books over at the ADM library to find out about typography design. Below are some of the inspirational typographic images that could be mind-blowing to some of us, well at-least for me. Hahaha!

3d-letter-art-09 3d-typography-vault49 5aaca8758613ddd906454d6ab2a8ed9d Christoper-Labrooys-3D-Typography-Art-1-600x402 Creating-Good-Enough-to-Eat-Typography logo sabeena18r5jog5q03erjpg


My idea on creating an adventurous theme came greatly because I personally enjoyed being in outdoor and travel. Some of elements which I used has an ideal interpretation of the adjectives that describes me.

I decided to do every frames digitally using the pen tool because I believed that I’m more well versed and confident in using the medium.

Besides that, I would also like to achieve a minimal clean vectorized design, but at the same time has a great impact that could grab the attention of viewer.

Take for example the first equation, I used a honey yellow for the base as yellow is a color that grabs the attention of the viewer. And I believe it works here without we even realizing it.

So the ensemble of the colors, complements each other in every equation, I repeated the colors across each equation so that it has a consistency in the overall aesthetic look despite that we could see distinct contrast like the background colors which is honey yellow, the Prussian blue, teal, and khaki. These colors have a sets of meaning that I would like to evoke.

Before I started on putting the right colors, I made some research and get some inspiration on a color palette in color.adobe.com. I used mostly split complementary and triad color combination split-complementary color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme, but has less pressure. As for the triad color it combines to create color harmonies.











The first equation is independent plus adventurous equals explorer me. I used the swiss army as it is best describe an independent me. Generally, I don’t like to rely on others for aid or support unless I really need it. I used red color to evoke courage, strength, energy and determination. Red also has a great contrast against the yellow background to bring out the subject further.

I describe myself adventurous mainly because I really love exploring and taking risk, sometime when we travel or explore to a foreign place we tend to get lost but to me it is an adventure to get lost. Hence I used Pine green for the tent to represent optimism, green also relates to nature. Independent plus adventurous and I got me, still finding myself and exploring by showing a sense of achieving towards my goal in a mountain composition. Having the khaki or brownish tone for the mountain that also represents endurance, nature and earthy.


That leads to the next equation loyal minus possessive equals to better me. Loyalty trait has always been in me. Being faithful to friends and commitment. Hence i thought a matchbox is a great way to interpret this equation. The loyalty for a matchbox is between the matchsticks and the coarse striking surface on one edge for lighting the matches contained inside. They are like a bunch of friends that cannot be separated, but if they do, they would be separated for the rest of their life that and that leads to the possessive me, sometime I maybe possessive, keeping things within me, just like this illustration, but once I eliminate it, I will get a better me, which comes the fire that represents a burning sensation and desire in achieving the best, something better. I used the Prussian blue for the background as blue represents loyalty, it is also a color of spirits. The brown wood color on ‘better me’ composition is to evoke a sense of earthy, nature and confidence.


Next equation, Preparedness multiply by Nature and I get Ideal me which is also Satisfaction.   Preparedness and being ever ready, I will always take account on this whenever there is event or task to be done. Being ever ready.

Same like the mass tins that we bring along if we are into the forest. The Gray color to show serious and intelligence, contrasting the brown that is in the nature.

Multiply by nature, using fish to represents this frame. I have always appreciated the beauty of nature. It has a great intangible connection to me. Having the Honey yellow and a shade of orange to evoke lifelines, cheerfulness, and energy at the same time. And the Ideal me shows a sense of satisfaction. From my point of view, we should be grateful for what we have, because there are more less fortunate people out there. Thus I hope having a simple cooked fish delivers what I would like to convey here. Always be humble and grateful and that makes ideal me.



The Last equation represents Dependable Plus Visionary and I get me in five years’ time. The backpack design was an inspiration from my own bag. I used pine and forest green. Green represents durable and reliable hence with this I would like to show the dependable me which could also mean trustworthy. Being an ambivert also allows me to think a lot and always having a great sense of vision to my future, whether or not the dreams come true, I’m not sure but dreams doesn’t come just like that, it is me that needs to make the dream.

And therefore the final frame represents  me standing on a mountain. It is suppose to show me achieving my goal. But I really hope I could give back to society and do social work out there.



Behind the scene


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Some rough sketches done before consultation with Prof.Shirley to finalise on the ideas.

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Getting some constructive feedback and work on the simple things like the EXAMPLES below

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Getting the right colors…







Overall, I find this project really interesting. We make use of what we have gained from the previous two projects. Through this project also, we are able to identify some of the traits we possessed that we ourselves haven’t identify. And the best part is getting to know what are my classmates EGO(=! Thank you to everyone for making my first semester a memorable one! It has been a great pleasure knowing you guys!

COLOR Schemes

[Types of Color Schemes]



  • Monochromatic colors

Monochromatic refers to the use and variance to one hue within the color circle. Different harmonies are created by altering and combining different values and intensities of the same hue within a single composition. There are many monochromatic harmonies because of the subtle and closely related value possible within one hue scheme.

e.g. Monochromatic painting







  • Complementary colors

Complementary hues are located directly opposite each other on the color circle. When these pigments are mixed together in equal amounts, the result is a gray or achromatic color because the pigments absorb the primary light rays. If complementary hues are mixed in unequal proportions, they lessen the tone and intensity of the principal hue. Complementary hues are so named because when they are placed next to each other, they appear brighter, or of greater intensity, than when viewed alone or with an analogous hue.

e.g. Complementary color painting

complement paint




The split-complementary (also called Compound Harmony) color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. In addition to the base color, it uses the two “Analogous” colors adjacent to its complement. Split-complementary color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme, but has less pressure.

e.g. Split-complimentary colored painting

Gilpin House 3_1




all harmonies a

  • Achromatic colors

Achromatic means without hue or colorless. White, gray and black are achromatic or neutral because they lack color quality or hue. Black is absent of any color, therefore, it cannot reflect light. In additive mixing theory, white is thought of as the total accumulation of all color in the spectrum, thus light is the source of color.

The mixing of black and white pigments creates numerous tonal contrasts or gray values. This range of grays is important because it can indicate depth and relative distance within the visual field.

e.g. Achromatic coloured painting





  • Analogous colors

Analogous color scheme are based on the combination of several hues located adjacent to each other on the color circle. Analogous color harmonies can be extended in both value and brightness to create a wide variety of interesting compositions.

There are many ways analogous color schemes are diagrammed. The color circle can be divided according to the warm and cool hues. Generally speaking, warm hues refer to red, yellow and orange. Cool hues refer to green, blue and violet. Warm or cool distinctions may be within a specific hue as well as the distinction between specific hues. For example, a “warm red” may be slightly yellow or orange, while a “cool red” maybe slightly violet or purple in appearance. The perception of warm and cool hues is relative.

Analogous color schemes do not have to be selected according to the warm and cool hues, they can also be diagrammed by selecting one principal hue for a composition. This doesn’t necessarily need to be a primary or secondary hue, but rather the hue that will dominate the final composition.  In addition, one or more hues on each side of the principal hue will give an analogous scheme.

e.g. Analogous coloured painting

analogous paintinf





  • Triad colors

Three hues spaced equidistantly around the color circle are called triads. By rotating an equilateral triangle in the center of the color circle, the hues of triad harmony can be determined. Since the primary and secondary pigments are equidistant from each other on the color circle, they combine to create color harmonies.

e.g. Triad Coloured painting

triad colors














  • Tetrad colors

Tetrad colors are composed of four hues that are two sets of complements. A tetrad can be diagrammed as a square or as a rectangle in side the color circle.


The rectangle color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs and offers plenty of possibilities for variation. Rectangle color schemes work best when one color is dominant.


The square color scheme is similar to the rectangle, but with all four colors spaced evenly around the color circle. Square color schemes work best when all colors are evenly balanced.

e.g. Tetrad Coloured painting