Foundation 2D: Forrest Gump (Process)



Wash the frame clean
Coating of P5C blue emulsion on Frame
Failing the coating of P5C blue emulsion on tray
Placing frames on exposing unit

Washing of the blue emulsion to create the printing layer
Placing Ink on the top part of the frame
Preparing for the most important part (Printing)
Practice on paper

After practicing on papers, I decided to try it out on my tote bag to produce my final piece. My first attempt was a failure as I did not apply enough ink and did not apply the pressure evenly.

Failed Attempt on Tote Bag


One smooth swipe

After my first failed attempt, I learnt that in order for it to turn out successful, the amount of ink to be applied has to be estimated accurately and it had to be printed in one swipe/ stroke. Depending on the composition, more black areas means that we have to apply more black ink. Like for my composition, I had to apply a lot of black ink to it.

Finished tote bag
Final Piece



Foundation 2D: Forrest Gump (Final)

Forrest gump


“You mustn’t be afraid to dream a little bigger darling.” – Inception

Keywords: Dream, Not afraid to dream bigger.

For this quote, the main emphasis is on not being afraid, to dream big. When I think of the word dream, I instantly linked the word dream with fantasy. And when I think of fantasy, all I can imagine are mythical and magical beasts and creatures like the ones we see in the movie Alice in the Wonderland, Where the Wild Things Are and The Spiderwick Chronicles. Hence I decided to create a composition of a flying creature which has an elephant head, hippopotamus body and dragonfly wings to represent dreams and dreaming big.




Draft #1

And for the idea of not being afraid, I initially wanted to show the creature flying out of a brain. However, the idea of showing a brain is too literal therefore I switched to showing the creature flying and emerging through layers of clouds with a starry background. Besides, flying through clouds can also bring out the idea of exploring into the unknown; having big dreams. Also, the combination of clouds and starry background also creates a very magical and dreamy setting to the whole composition.

Suggestions on improvements after consultation:

  1. Move the Creature so that it is not at the center of the composition. Placing it at the side or corners create a more interesting composition.
  2. Reduce the number of clouds and decrease the opacity of the cloud layers. The clouds are too overwhelming especially the cluster of clouds below the Creature; the clouds are competing visually with the Creature even though my intention is to make the Creature the main focus.
  3. Apply the halftone effect on the clouds as the grey tones might not be printed out nicely.
Final Composition #1

The design principle that I adopted for this composition is hierarchy. As what I had mentioned previously, the clouds before the adjustment was too overpowering hence it competes in terms of the visual presence with the creature even though the creature was the dominant figure. Hence after the adjustment, the design looks better as the dominant (creature), sub-dominants (clouds + black background), sub-ordinate (stars) becomes clearer. Besides, also apply the principle of contrast by placing my creature behind the black background to make it stand out even more.

“Beautiful things don’t ask for attention.” – The Secret Life of Walter Mitty

Keywords: Beautiful things, Don’t ask for attention.

Things that are associated with beautiful things to me are a beautiful lady, flowers, butterfly.

Draft #1

For beautiful lady, I purposely make it look faded so that we cannot see it clearly hence creating a mysterious vibe to it. I then placed the Tulips that symbolizes love and beauty and added butterflies around the lady to further emphasize beauty. Next, I  placed the composition in a mirror as mirror attracts attention.

Mandala Pattern
Draft #2

However, I felt that the composition is still lacking something hence I decided to use the idea of one point perspective to draw the audience attention to the composition. I was thinking of using mandala pattern as the background to make it look more elegant, but the composition looked too messy and distracting, therefore I decided to use the one point perspective pattern instead.

Draft #3

Although I was quite satisfied with my composition I found that the message I was trying to bring out was contradictory as it showed that beautiful things ask for attention rather than beautiful things don’t ask for attention. Thus, I placed the Lady, Tulips and Butterflies outside of the mirror frame while keeping the inside of the mirror empty. 

How the composition works is through the idea of perspective. As audience looks at the composition, they expect to see something being reflected in the mirror, however, there is nothing inside the mirror. Instead, their attention now shifts to the tulips, butterflies and the girl outside of the frame. The beautiful things become the secondary attention hence conveying the idea that beautiful things do not ask for attention.

The principle of design that I adopted for this composition is balance and alignment. I intentionally aligned everything symmetrically so that so that the audience’s attention is drawn directly to the mirror which is at the center.  I also align the composition in such a manner whereby everything is connected hence the audience attention will shift naturally from the lines to the mirror than outside of the mirror again.

Final Composition #2

Tulips duplicated to cover the bottom part of the composition.

“No man can walk out of his own story.” – Rango

Keywords: Man, Walk out, Story

Break down of quote gives the idea of unable to escape and being stuck. Hence I thought of creating a composition that is similar to the stairs illusion.

Draft #1

For my first composition, I experimented it by stacking and arranging the stairs in different directions in a random manner to form a maze. I divided the man into 2 parts, the leg and the body. As the man tries to walk out of the frame, his right legs appears back into the frame hence showing that he is unable to escape. Besides, I added a door that is inaccessible in the maze to create the idea of trapped.

Draft #2

One of issue with the composition was that the stairs was not really visible, so I changed the picture of the stairs. Again I placed the stairs in random order to make it look like an illusion. The placement of the inaccessible doors and inverted man defies the law of physics of the reality making it look like a limbo world. Besides, I added the background that resembles a net to reinforce the idea that the man is trapped in this world.

After my consultation, it was suggested that the net looked too overpowering visually. Therefore, I was recommended to change the my stairs to find engravings of it instead of using images via halftone. However I was unable to find quality pictures of engravings that I really liked. Thus I had to adapt and change my background instead.

Grid background (Thinner lines)
Final Composition #3

For this composition I adopted the design principle of hierarchy. The dominant for the composition is the stairs which I intentionally duplicate them and place them randomly across the composition in different sizes. The subdominant is the grid background to further add on the illusion setting which I wanted to create. Next the human figure and the door are the sub-ordinates.

“The dead know only one thing, it is better to be alive.” – Full metal jacket

Keywords: Dead, Better to be, Alive

Before starting on my composition, I decided to search for all the symbolism of dead/death and alive/life and pick out a few that best fit the quote.


Draft #1


After picking out different pictures to symbolise dead and alive, I combine the 2 elements together to produce a composition showing the dead rising from the grave trying to grab the heart. However, the composition looked very boring and the alignment looked very planned. 

Hence to make my composition look more interesting I thought of the idea of using the contrast as my principle of design. I intentionally made my background black so that the heart stands out the most due to visual contrast. Besides, I also played with another design principle, hierarchy. Because i wanted to maintain the heart as the main focus, I gave the grave, raven and the hands minimal highlights so that it does not compete with the heart for visual presence but stands out at the same time. I also removed the bats and made the arms looked more proportionate and added the blood drip on the bottom of the heart. I want it to be simple but looked interesting.

Final Composition #4


Mnemosyne’s Scent: Planes and Plastic Model


A plane is an element that has surface direction and slant unaccompanied by mass. And there are two- and three-dimensional planes.

2D planes:

  • Straight axis plane
  • Bent axis plane
  • Curved axis plane
  • Complex axis planes

3D planes: 

  • Curved plane
  • Broken plane
  • Twisted plane
  • Grouped planes

The first part of this assignment requires us to make us of 3D and 2D planes to create an interesting visual composition. The planes are cut from art-board and each strips measure from 8 cm to 0.5 cm in width.

Things to note when doing the models:

  • PROPORTION & RHYTHM : Inherent, Comparative, Overall
  • VISUAL STRUCTURE: Tensional design of axes of surfaces
  • GROUP MOVEMENTS: Dependent, Independent, Precarious balance

Sketch Models

Sketch Model 1:

Front View
Side View
Top View


Sketch Model 2:

Front View
Top View
Side View

2D Sketch Analysis

Model 1


  • Conflicting SD and SO (Introduce another element: 1 D, 2 SD, 1 SO)
  • Apply tapering on strips
  • Reduce Size of SD via Tapering

Model 2


  • Extend the length of D (Make it obvious that it is the dominant)
  • Add in elements of 2D planes on both ends of D
  • Trim 1/3 width of SD
  • Taper ends of SD
  • Make SO thinner (Make it obvious that it is the Sub Ordinate)
  • Leave one end of SO dangling to create a sense of levitation

Revised Final Models

Model 1

Model 1 has 4 different elements – 1 Dominant, 2 Sub-dominant and 1 Sub-ordinate. Each planes have contrasting proportions and extends in different directions. When viewed, the dominant plane acts as a stationary while the 2 sub-dominant planes curl and warp around it creating voids between the 2 elements. The sub-ordinate is added to fill up the emptiness at the front making it look more visually interesting.

Model 2

Model 2 has 3 different elements – 1 Dominant, 1 Sub-dominant and 1 Sub-ordinate. Compared to model 1, the dominant plane in model 2 extends horizontally with both its ends touching the base. The ends of the dominant plane is folded to bent axis planes and broken planes. The sub-dominant extends vertically and creates a void between it and the dominant plane. The sub-ordinate wraps itself around the sub-dominant, like a free flowing form making the model look more interesting.



Smell and memories

Smell belongs to one of the five senses that we humans have. We use our nose to smell and by definition it means the power to perceive odors or scents by using our nose. According to science, smell is relatively more capable of triggering certain emotions and memories than our other senses.

Incoming smells are first processed by the olfactory bulb, which starts inside the nose and runs along the bottom of the brain. The olfactory bulb has direct connections to two brain areas that are strongly implicated in emotion and memory:  the amygdala and hippo-campus. And our visual, auditory and tactile information does not pass through these 2 brain areas hence explaining why smell is so capable of triggering certain emotions and memories.


Mnemonic devices

According to , Mnemonic devices are techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something. In other words, it’s a memory technique to help your brain better encode and recall important information.

Some of the Mnemonic techniques include:




Chunking is simply a way of breaking down larger pieces of information into smaller, organized “chunks” of more easily-managed information. 10 digits broken into 3 chunks, allowing almost everyone to remember an entire phone number with ease.


Organizing information into either objective or subjective categories also helps. If you can divide a list of items into a fewer number of categories, then all you have to remember is the categories (fewer items), which will serve as memory cues in the future.


It’s based on the assumption that you can best remember places that you are familiar with, so if you can link something you need to remember with a place that you know very well, the location will serve as a clue that will help you to remember. You go through a list of words or concepts needing memorization, and associate each word with one of your locations.


Plastic bottle models (Reference)


For this assignment, we were required to bring 2 smells that bring back both pleasant and unpleasant memories.


To me smell of trading cards brings back pleasant memories as it reminds me of the excitement of opening up new booster packs when I was young. Buying cards and collecting them were my childhood hobbies and hence the smell of these cards bring me back in time to the excitement I had when I was young.


The smell of the groundsheet brings me back unpleasant memories. It has a very distinct “Plasticky” smell and the smell reminds me of my time back in the National Service. The smell of the groundsheet becomes a reminder for me to move out field and to sleep in the forest. It also reminds me of a time when I had to build a shelter with my team mate but we were unable to get it set up properly hence when it rained in the middle of the night, we were drenched and cold and were unable to sleep.


Final Model


The model is first viewed from the bottom portion of the model. As the saying goes, “bad memories are easier to remember”, therefore I wanted to create something that is striking compared to the other parts of the model. The main idea that I was trying to bring out was the idea of irritation which was the unpleasant memory I had when I smell my groundsheet. To create this, I cut out sharp edges and poked many holes and used the heat gun to make it curl to an organic shape. Hence when viewed, the Aichmophobic edges and Trypophobic holes gives out a sense of irritation, the idea that you do not even want to touch or see it.

The “unpleasant memory” is then connected to a twisted form which was created by twisting and melting 2 different plastic parts together. It acts as a bridge fusing 2 of my smells and memories together. At the other end of the form comes a thin piece of planar plastic which protrudes out from the opening.

The thin planar plastic represents the “pleasant memory”. The “pleasant memory” is represented by the smooth surface and the wavy and curvy form it has. It extends diagonally and when gives the idea of a ‘flowy’ and calming feeling which was what my object reminds me of when I smell it. The length it has represents the nostalgic and lasting memories it belongs in my mind.

The “pleasant memory” then extends and hovers above the “unpleasant memory” creating a sense of void between the 2 elements.



Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. As is true of all other arts, ikebana is creative expression within certain rules of construction.

Materials used:

Living branches, Grasses, Leaves and Blossoms, ANY MATERIALS

What distinguishes Ikebana from other approaches such as “flower arrangement” is its asymmetrical form and the use of empty space as an essential feature of the composition. For each Ikebana, the artist’s intention behind each arrangement is shown through a piece’s colour combinations, natural shapes, graceful lines, and the implied meaning of the arrangement.


Ikebana comprises of 2 main styles, the Moribana and Heika.


Moribana uses a shallow container and a kenzan, a holder with many sharp points into which flowers are inserted. The big feature of moribana is the broad expanse of natural-looking shapes and a mound of beautiful flowers. This creates beautiful volume which can be viewed from three sides.









Heika (also called rikkashoka, or seika) is a basic style of ikebana arrangement that uses a tall vase and highlights vertical lines.  The biggest feature is the emphasis on bringing out the flowers’ natural charms and arranging them in a tasteful and elegant manner.


Different Arrangement Styles for Ikebana:

Another unorthodox style is the Jiyūka (“free style”). It is a free creative design and does not confine the materials to just flowers; every material can be used.

To compose a free style arrangement, there are basic principles of formation and some other important factors to consider. Analysis of the elements of the plant’s form, shape, colour, texture and quantity should be conducted to decide how it should be used.

These decisions will be influenced by such things as desired mass, line, point (focal point) or surface area. The composition or blend of these elements, the sense of proportion, contrasts, rhythm and harmony should be carefully considered.

This style is more closely related to our assignment with the use of free form designs and different materials to create a model.


The use of wires and free form arrangement of wire and leave.

The use of unorthodox forms and shapes.

Ikebana with fruits and vegetables.

Taste & Food

5 Basic Tastes:

Sweet – Sweetness, usually regarded as a pleasurable sensation, is produced by the presence of sugars and a few other substances.

Sourness – is the taste that detects acidity. The mouth-puckering sensation is caused by acids in lemons, yogurt and sourdough bread and other food.

Saltiness – Our brains are programmed so that a little salt tastes good, and a lot tastes bad.

Bitter – Bitterness is the most sensitive of the tastes, and many perceive it as unpleasant, sharp, or disagreeable. Bitterness is a distinctive bad taste accompanied by a reflexive “yuck” expression on the face.

Unami – Umami is an appetitive taste. It’s best described as “savory”—a taste rich in flavor released by cooking, curing or aging.


How we taste:

The idea that the different parts of our tongue taste differently is a common misconception.

Food produces Chemicals –> Taste Buds containing sensory cells –>Nerve –> Brain

Airborne odors –> Cilia in the nose –> Receptor cells –> Nerve –> Brain

Sight and Taste:

Taste as a sense is made up of sight, smell, touch and resulting taste. What we see will directly affect how we taste. For instance, when a moldy bread is placed in front, our brain already analyse the taste or the food and made its mind up that the moldy bread is disgusting.


The appearance of the food is also important when we want to make food taste good. Below are ways we can make our food look more appealing (FOOD PRESENTATION) and appetizing and this is similar to our final model where we have to create the different sensory aspects with the use of food and other materials. Besides, in food presentation, we can see different 3D design elements like the trios of Dominant, Subdominant & Subordinate.


Garnish – Usually consisting of an edible component, garnishes brighten the plate, give a clue to the flavor of the meal, complement the taste of the dish or fill empty space on the plate.

Using right colours – Colour is often the first element noticed in the appearance of a food product. Humans begin to associate certain colors with various types of foods from birth, and equate these colors to certain tastes and flavors throughout life. For example we associate apple as sweet because it is red. Imagine we have a blue apple.

Plating – The presentation of the plating makes an impression, even a promise, with the viewer. If the foodie is intrigued by the food, the artistic plating has done its job. If it looks good, you’re gonna wanna have it.The design in plating makes the experience of food more than just eating and enjoying, but further into an expression of craftsmanship and art.


Similar to the previous assignment, we also had to pick a random season from the Pandora box and for this assignment, the season that I received was SPRING.

According to, SPRING is the season after winter and before summer. Days become longer and weather gets warmer in the temperate zone because the Earth tilts towards the Sun. In many parts of the world plants grow and flowers bloom. Often people with hay fever suffer more, because of the allergens. Many animals have their breeding seasons in spring. In many parts of the world it rains for hours. This helps the plants grow and the flowers bloom.

Colours play a huge role in terms of the appearance of our final model hence the colours that represent SPRING are important for us to take note.

Colours of SPRING – Distinct yellow undertones symbolize the new growth that is visible everywhere in grass, trees and plants. With maturity, Spring’s foliage yields its yellow-tinged spring green colour and gives way to the cool blue undertones of Summer. Spring’s colours are as daring as the first crocus that pushes its way through the frost-covered ground. Even the neutrals of Spring, like camel and champagne, have a certain zest! Spring is a time of vigoro and growth, and the colours of Spring reflect this. From:



Before forming our final FooKebana (Food + Ikebana), we were required to come up with 3 sketch models using a sphere, a cone and a cylinder that has similar elements to that of Ikebana.

Checklist for 3D models:

  1. Each model must consist of a sphere, cone and cylinder.
  2. The Dominant(D), Subdominant(SD) and Subordinate(SO) should stay consistent from all angles.
  3. The model should be interesting looking while taking into account the proportion of the object and model itself.
  4. Create a balance (Dependent, Precarious, Independent) of directional forces from every position.

#1 Sketch Model

Side View
Front View
Top View
  • Dominant – Cone , Subdominant – Sphere , Subordinate – Cylinder
  • Consistent D, SD & SO from all angles.
  • Wedging of Cone and Sphere
  • Piercing of Cylinder into Sphere
  • Axis of each volume going in different direction creating dynamic movement
  • Cone is placed in a precarious position while supporting both sphere and cylinder.
  • Shortlisted for 2D sketch Analysis


  • Cylinder could be pierce through the sphere whereby 1/3 of the cylinder is exposed on other side of the sphere.
  • The placement of the Sphere. The apex of the cone creates dynamism hence by wedging the apex with he sphere, it made the model less dynamic.
  • Perhaps pierce the apex through the Sphere.

#2 Sketch Model

Top View
Back View
Side View
  • Dominant – Cylinder , Subdominant – Cone , Subordinate – Sphere
  • Consistent D, SD & SO from all angles.
  • Axis of each volume going in different directions. Zig-Zag Axis in play.
  • The use of a small Sphere and an exaggerated cylinder creates a form of dynamism in the overall proportion.
  • The use of a small Sphere creates a feel of levitation to the whole model.


  • Make Sphere slightly bigger
  • Wedge in cylinder into cone

#3 Sketch Model 

Front View
Top View
Side View
Side View
  • Dominant – Cylinder , Subdominant – Cone , Subordinate – Sphere
  • Consistent D, SD & SO from all angles.
  • Axis of cone and cylinder going in different directions. The addition of sphere brings out the X, Y and Z element.
  • Changed the inherent proportions of the cylinder by making the diameter of it’s circumference longer than its thickness.
  • Audience should view the model from the top first then view the model from the front. From the top, the model looks overwhelming because of the circumference of the cylinder and the cone as it covers a lot of surface. However when looked at a lower angle there is actually a lot of space hence creating a form of illusion with the use of the void below the cylinder and cone.
  • Shortlisted for 2D sketch Analysis.


  • Make Sphere slightly bigger
  • Wedge in cylinder into cone

2D Sketch Analysis

Analysis for Sketch Model #1
Analysis for Sketch Model #3

Sketch Model 3 to be used for reference for final product.

Final Product

Final Product (Side View)
Final Product (Front View)
Close up (Strawberries + Candle + White Base)
Close up (Tree Branch + Cotton Candy Balls)
Bottom up view of Tree Branch

Materials used for final product: 

  • Branch
  • Cotton Candy
  • Candle
  • White Bathtub (BASE)
  • Strawberries

Colour Concept:

  • Pink
  • White
  • Red
  • Light Brown

Dominant: Tree Branch

Sub-Dominant: Candle, Strawberries, White Base

Sub-Ordinate: Cotton candy balls

Idea Concept:

When I think of spring the first time that popped up to my mind was Cherry Blossom. Hence my color concept that I chose for this final product comprises of pink, white and red which resembles that of Cherry Blossom.

Spring represents growth, vigor and blossoming, thus I intentionally chose a dynamic looking branch so that it can instantly capture the audience attention and bring out the ideas of spring. The branch is dynamic looking as it extends from a branch from the base to many branches and curls back, making it look interesting.

For me, I feel that Spring encompasses the taste of sweetness as it represents a sweet new beginning and spring break. Therefore, I used foods that are sweet like Strawberries and Cotton candy. I rolled the cotton candy into balls and placed them randomly on the tree branch as it bear resemblance to the cherry blossoms.

The candle symbolizes the warm of Spring and also the longer day time during spring. As the flame burns through the wax, it releases a fragrant floral smell that you will normally smell when flower blossoms during spring.

Analysis of Final Product

Ikebana emphasizes aesthetics in minimalism, therefore I tried to keep my final product as simple looking as possible while making it look interesting and encompasses the ideas of Spring.

Front View (Lines showing the Axis going different directions)

Initially the placement of my branch in line with the base but after that I shifted and tilted it towards the side  and placed my candle diagonally on the other side of the base to make the whole composition look more interesting and dynamic.


  • Lesser strawberries (Too many strawberries made the base looked very messy and overwhelming)
  • Wedge Strawberry with candle (Connection between the objects in the model)
Carving a gap on strawberry
Wedging of strawberry on candle
Minus one strawberry and wedging of strawberry and candle


This assignment is really cool as it allows us to express our creativity and ideas through the arrangement and combination of random objects like food and tree branches. Because it has no limitations and restrictions, it enables us to explore the different means and ways we can use to arrange our objects. It was really cool to see the different interpretation of the seasons everyone was given and the different ways they approach the Ikebana.

However, doing the Ikebana was really frustrating because I was unable to achieve what I initially planned out to do for my Ikebana. My idea for my Ikebana was rather different from what I originally planned because I was unable to source for the materials I wanted. Hence I had to consistently improvise to make my model look as close to what I had planned. It was just frustrating because no matter how hard you try, you are still unable to get what you want…

But overall, it was really enjoyable 😀

Foundation 2D: Forrest Gump (Movie Quotes)

Everyone loves watching films and everyone has their own favourite movie lines/ quotes. Here below are 4 of my favourite quotes which I am going to be using for my “Forrest Gump” assignment. I try to use quotes that are not too long, probably around 7 words so that it is easier to break it down and piece into a visual.

“No man can walk out of his own story.” – Rango

“You mustn’t be afraid to dream a little bigger darling.” – Inception

“Beautiful things don’t ask for attention.” – The Secret Life of Walter Mitty

“The dead know only one thing, it is better to be alive.” – Full metal jacket



Pandora Box: Counter Balance

Counter balance

According to the dictionary, a counterbalance is a weight that balances another weight or a force or influence that offsets or checks an opposing force.

Checklist for 3D models:

  • Models should achieve the idea of counter-balance
  • All boxes must be able to be seen when rotated around.
  • Model should comprise of a dominant (D), sub-dominant (SD) and sub-ordinate (SO) and they should stay consistent on different sides.
  • The model should not be flat looking. Try to make model look interesting with varying boxes. 360-degree interesting.

During week 1, I only focused on getting the counter balance idea and making sure the 3 boxes are visible from different sides. However, I did not take note with the dominant, sub-dominant and subordinate concept.

Failed compositions from week 2:

Model 1:

Model 1 failed because I was unable to achieve the groups of D, SD and SO consistently from different view.

Model 2:

Same goes for model 2, I was unable to achieve the groups of D, SD and SO consistently.

Model 3:

For model 3, it looks too flat and was not interesting looking.

Although I tried applying the counter balance idea into the models, all 3 models looked like one another and was not visually interesting.


Week 3

For week 3, I tried to play with more different combinations to achieve the idea of counter balance while trying my best to apply the groups of D, SD and SO into my models. I placed my boxes without taping them together first and tried to play with counter balancing the acting forces or the weights so that I could get as close as possible to the idea of counter balance.

Red – Dominant

Green – Sub Dominant

Blue – Sub Ordinate

Sketch Model 1:

Bottom View
Side View
Front View
  • For the first model, the D is placed in a way that it is tipping towards the right as seen from the side view. To counter against the force and achieve balance, the SO is placed on the top left.
  • All sides have consistent D, SD and SO.
  • Length and width of D and SD too similar from front view.
  • SD and SO similar in size when looking from side view.
  • Have the X,Y and Z plane elements.
  • Shortlisted for 2D analysis.

Sketch Model 2:

Side View
Front View


Top View
  • For model 2, the SO is tipping over towards the left as seen from the side view. The SD is placed in such a way to counter against the force so that it achieves a balance.
  • Visual hierarchy of D, SD and SO not consistent from all sides.
  • Length of SO is too long hence making it hard to differentiate between SD and SO from the side.
  •  Unable to differentiate the D, SD and SO from the top view.
  • I tried to make the model more interesting by making the SO as thin as possible hence when you look from the front, it also presents the idea of levitation.

Sketch Model 3:

Top view
Front View
Side View
  • For model 3, the D tipping over to the right side as seen from the front view. The SD is placed on the left to counter against the force so that it achieves balance.
  • Unable to get the consistent D, SD and SO.
  • SD became the SO from the side view.
  • SO became the D from the top view.
  • I had the toughest time thinking for model 3 on how to make it different from the other 2 and make it interesting. I tried to play with length by using longer boxes but the result was satisfying.

After considering all 3 different sketch models, I decided to use sketch model 1 as my final model.

2D Sketch Analysis

Key points to note:

  • Decrease size of SO to 80% of original size or decrease size of SO so that it can be differentiated from SD
  • Shifted SO’s position to create a more dynamic composition
  • Increase width of SD to differentiate from SO
  • Decrease size of SD so that height of SO is 2/3 to the width of D from front view.
  • Moved and extended SD to balance D after shifting position of SO
  • Materials for D = Lighter wood + Light colour
  • Materials for SD = Harder and tougher wood + Dark Colour
  • Materials for SO = Light and transparent (Plastic/ Transparency/ Acrylic)
  • Not using techniques like wedging or piercing because these techniques will make the model firm which I do not want. In order to present the idea of counter balance, I want my model to present some form of unbalance and unsteadiness.
  • The use of contrasting volumes is needed to create the idea of counter balance as it requires the use of small and big volumes of different mass.
  • Adding weights to SO to make it interactive.



For dominant, I am going to be using lighter wood to create a box that is hollow. The colour of the box is light brown so that I can divert the attention to D as it is where the central of the idea of counter balance occurs at.


For SD, I am going to be using hard wood that is dark in colour. Dark colour conveys the idea of firmness and stability which is what I wanted for the SD which serves as a base for the D and SO. Besides I chose dark colour so that I can shift the attention towards the D and SO which are the main focus of the model.


For my SO, I decided to use a light and transparent material. I wanted it to be transparent to convey the idea of lightness. Besides, it helps to create a perceived illusion of making the SO look transparent and dispensable when weights are not added in, and in contrast makes the SO become important when weights are added in as the attention shift to the SO. I got the idea of using transparent materials from a Japanese architecture called Kazuyo Sejima.

Kazuyo Sejima is a Japanese Architecture whose style is very simple but able to create a very powerful . She emphasizes on the idea of immateriality as seen from her work in the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa. The use of glass and the colour white makes the whole building feels simple and weightless at the same time. The use of transparent vs opaque materials can create different kinds of idea in our models. Hence, I try to use the idea of transparent vs opaque to create different perception of weight and mass on my model. Since my word is counterbalance, mass and weight is important to the design of the model.

Final model

Side View (Without weights)


Front View (Without weights)
Top view (Without weights)

When weights are not added into the subordinate, the model becomes unsteady and causes the dominant to tilt to one side. Therefore, weights are added to counterbalance against the force that is acting on the dominant which causes it to tilt.

Side View (With weights)
Front View (With weights)
Top View (With weights)

When weights are added, the model achieves a balance.

Future Applications

Cantilever house


After doing this project, I was able to learn more on different design principles and how we can apply them in real life. As i slowly work on my project, I found that all these design principles like, rule of thirds, visual hierarchy, mass and voids and so on are everywhere around us and we can always relate to our surroundings. I also learnt the idea of materiality vs immateriality, the idea of using different materials and textures to create different perceptions and ideas. This is interesting as it opens up our simple mind and allow us to observe things like we never had.

The project also help me to create an eye when looking at things and also develop a critical mind when analyzing objects. It challenges my mind to think of the different methods and ways to make my model and on how to improve them. Besides, I learnt that craftsmanship and patience are both important for 3D and both of which I do not have and I need to work on them.

My Line Is Emo

My Six Emotions: Playfulness, Hate, Love, Lost, Worry, Depression

Playfulness – the quality of being light-hearted or full of fun.

For me the word playfulness draws connection to the word cheerfulness which links to the word bubbly. Hence, I try to convey playfulness through circular patterns which is done so via dripping paint.When you drip paint, you create circular shapes with additional splatter patterns. The splatters represent the liveliness when one is full of fun. The contrasting tones and sizes further adds into the element of excitement.I Dripped paint from different height to create splatters of different sizes using a straw while controlling the ratio of water and paint to create the different tones in the splashes.

Hate – feel intense dislike for.

Hate is a very intense feeling. When you hate you feel the inside of your heart burning up, tearing and opening up slowly. As you hate, hatred will slowly consume you letting the dark side take over, turning you into someone else.

I used a coil and used the burning end to slowly burn through the paper creating the line. The line shows how hate burns and tears up our soul and heart. The line opens up the with a dark background to show like the dark side is coming for you.

Love – a strong feeling of affection.Love is a strange thing it can make the strongest person or toughest person in the world to go weak, to go soft. Love makes you vulnerable. The use of wood and rope signifies toughness in a person. I purposely create the holes to show the vulnerability when love comes about. The slowly snapping ropes also helpings to show that love slowly breaks you apart when you do not know it. My interpretation of what love does to you in a visual way.

Lost – to describe the uncomfortable feeling of being in an unfamiliar situation

For this emotion, I was trying to creating a dreamy setting whereby a man is trapped in a place (limbo) where he is unable to escape and find his way out. The emotion lost was also inspired by a soundtrack called “Theme” from Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. In my opinion, the piece sounded like a man being trapped in a world where he is trying to escape but it always goes back to a loop. The dreamy setting is created with the use of baby powder. I spread the baby powder out on the black board to create like a misty and foggy scene. 

Worry –  anxious or troubled about actual or potential problems.I am a thinker and sometimes I feel like I think too much. I over analyse things too much and most of the times, the things I worry about do not even happen at all. So, I feel that worrying always leads to nothing or it leads to further emptiness.

For the interpretation of worry, I used crushed paper to create a very messy composition to represent the chaotic mind i.e. looks like brain cells working. Next the crushed paper mark making will slowly fade off as it moves from right to left symbolising that worrying leads to nothing or that it just leads to more emptiness. Besides I crushed the right side to add further bring out the messy state of mind.

Depression – feelings of severe despondency and dejection.

Victims of depression are mostly unaware that they have depression. Depression is an illness, it is not a choice. Sometimes people we think are fine are the ones that need our help the most. From the outside they might seem fine, but sometimes they are suffering deep down.

I created this by using pen knife and my finger nails. The cuts were made by pen knife which represents self-harm. And as you look closer, you can see the marks made by my finger nails, these represents the pain they are suffering from the inside which we do not understand.


Overall, I think this mark making project is very fun and interesting as it is a very open project whereby you can share your ideas through creative means. Beside, I think it is very cool how everyone has their own unique and distinct styles and very often you can point out a person’s characteristics and personalities through their mark makings. I also feel that sometimes aesthetically pleasing works are not necessary good because I feel that the stories and interpretation from the artists themselves are more important and gives the artwork a life. (In my opinion) One thing I learnt from doing this is the importance of referencing. Sometimes when you reach an idea block, referencing from other sources for creative ideas is actually useful. However, it is good to reference and pick out certain good points from other sources but I try not to refer to it too much as our idea will start becoming similar. Another thing I learnt is patience. Actually I am not really a patient guy, so during the process, I got quite annoyed and frustrated on a few occasions as I was unable to achieve what I wanted. But oh well, life is about success and failure, and only through failure will you learn. Success and learn!!! 😀

Mark Making: Week 3 (Process)

Week 3

For week 3, we prepared the rough idea of the mark making we are going to do for our emotions and experimented it in class.

The emotions that I had in mind was regret, peacefulness, lost, playfulness and worry.

Fingerprint + Ink on paper

For regret, I wanted to create a mark making using my finger prints. I used finger prints to signify the things that we do that we regret on are pulling us back in life. I wanted to have my finger prints swirl on it, but the ink was either too thick or too wet hence I was unable to create the product I wanted.

Broom Bristle + Ink on paper













For peacefulness, I wanted to create the idea of flowy gentle tall grass by using thin brush or thin tools. To me when I think of peacefulness, peaceful the image of standing in a field of tall grass field popped up my mind instantly. Standing in the field as the breeze caressing your gentle cheeks as you stand there looking towards the endless horizon without worrying about anything at all. I cut out some bristles of the bottom of the broom to do the mark making.

Mono Printing + Strings + Ink on paper
Creating a dreamy landscape/background
Mono printing + Rope + Ink on paper




























For lost, I decided to use mono printing to create the work. I wanted to recreate something like what I had last week but using a a string or rope that is much thinner in dimension. I wanted to also create a rather dreamy landscape that looks like a limbo hence I used a wetter ink. The problem I faced when doing this was the control of the ink, I was not really sure how wet it must be and some of my pieces came out totally black as well. But I was quite satisfied with the result using the rope creating an abstract piece of a man trapped inside a world.

Dripping from different heights
Dripping Paint + Water on paper
Nice splash with different tones.













For playfulness, I tried dripping paint to create a bubbly and cheerful piece. I played around with different tools for me to drip the paint from using a brush to using a scoop. In the end I found out the best tool to drip paint is by using straws. Next I also played around with the mixture of paint by adjusting the ratio and paint accordingly to create different tones.  However, I was unable to created splashes that are bigger. Need to experiment more.

Crushed paper + Ink on paper

For worry, I decided to use last weeks experimentation with crushed paper. I crushed the paper and mixed it with ink and dabbed it on paper creating a very messy look. Satisfied!

Week 3.5

Before confirming my 6 emotions, I realized that my works are mostly using inks and 2D stuff hence I need to experiment with the use of more materials and techniques maybe play around with 3Ds and textures.

Further improvements on current works:

Different results

For playfulness, I am sticking with the same concept but to further improve my work, I made some adjustments like changing my tool to straw, adjusted the ratio of water and paint accordingly to achieve different tones and adjusting the height where I drip the paint to get splashes of different sizes.


For lost, I wanted to recreate it but by using different materials instead of ink. Hence, I thought of using my dental floss and place it on a black background.

Tools used







The hard part was trying to stick the string on the black board as I do not want to use too much glue because the glue stands out after it dries. Hence I have to use toothpick to slowly glue the string on the black board.

Other interesting methods that I tried out was to create burn holes. I was looking through interesting patterns and I stumbled across this method.
Burning holes














At first I used a lighter to create the holes, but the whole paper caught fire and it failed. I tried it out using a joss stick and paper and holes came out looking similar.

I was interested in creating layering in my work piece after doing some research on layering art as it can help add the 3D element into my works.

Texture art paste on canvas:

Paper Mache:

Folding art:
Folding 1
Folding 2
Folding 3














All 3 are creative ideas and I feel like the folding art idea can help to create layering effect on the background hence helping to accentuate the emotion even more. 

Other interesting method I tried was using string and on wood.

Furry String
String with wood








Failed experimentation:

(Lost) Water colour + string + Paper
(Playful) Drip ink + Hard paper
(lost) String on black board
Paper folding (I quite like it but I never use)
Paper Folding
Burning holes in paper
Burning more holes

These are the more interesting methods that I tried out with. After some experimentation and research, I feel that mark making is actually very fun as it enables you to express your ideas through creative and artistic means. Its cool… but super messy 😀


Assignment 1: Picture Story – Curating Self


My object is my pair of running shoes. This pair of shoes has been with me for 4 years and it has been my buddy through my best and worst times. I had ankle issues since young and a good pair of running shoes were essential to provide support and stability when I exercise and when I go for adventures.

I love running and one of the highlight of my life was running my first half marathon. My running shoes were my partners in crime as it guided me safely through the half marathon and subsequently the second, the third and so on. 


My running shoes follow me everywhere I go, braving through every adventure together. Slinging my shoes in this manner kind of resembles the action of carrying a rucksack. I love to go on adventure and I need my shoes with me if I do so. I shot it with a deep focal blur with my back against the camera to show the idea of “me and the shoe against the world”.



Even when I am resting, my shoes will still do its best to protect me by allowing me to put my feet on top of it, regardless of the terrain. The reason why I placed my feet in such a manner is to show the scar which represents the ankle issues I have. Hence this shows my reliance I have towards my shoes; I need it.


Through different weathers, conditions and terrains, this pair of shoes has done its best to protect me. It has been 4 long years, and the wear and tear can be seen clearly on the shoes. For this image, I applied a darker tone with the use of a grey background and low lighting to create a very moody setting to symbolize the parting between me and my shoes. I purposely focus on the hole to emphasize on the battle scars my shoes received while protecting me.  

Although it is just a pair of running shoes, it painted a huge part of my life. It has been 4 great years, and you have serve me well. A tribute to the best running shoes. Thank you.



My World

A place that is significant to me is my home, my room which I have been staying in for 20 years. My room makes me feel comfortable and safe from the outside world, it also serves as a place for me to rest my body and soul and to regroup myself from reality. It is also a place for me to think for ideas and reflect about life.

 I like being neat and tidy and like to keep things simplistic. When you walk into my room, the only features visible are my closet, my bed and my study table.

My bed is my favourite feature in the room and the reason is obvious – sleep. Sleep is everyone’s favourite thing, nobody dislikes sleep. I like to sleep because I can rest and because I can dream. I love dreams and I love dreaming as it enables me to escape from the real world and create my own world. Personally, I am a heavy thinker and my bed is where my thought processes runs the craziest. Sometimes I think too much to the point that I could not sleep and just start staring at the ceiling light.

My room is also a product of negative and depressing thoughts. I like staying in my room, but sometimes the more I stay in my room, the more I feel that my room is like a cage and keeps me thinking that my life is not interesting. Very slowly the feeling of being bounded starts creeping up on me. The irony in that is that the inner me seeks for thrills and adventure of the outside world but at the same time I crave for the sense of safety and comfort.

                                Dream Waves
                                  Mood 1
                                 Mood 2
                                Night Light

The best way to describe my feeling I have of my room will be the song “The Big Ship” by Brian Eno. The following is quoted from David Foster Wallace, an American writer, on the song “The Big Ship”.

“This song is making me feel both warm and safe, as though cocooned like a little boy that’s just been taken out of the bath and wrapped in towels that have been washed so many times they’re incredibly soft, and also at the same time feeling sad; there’s an emptiness at the centre of the warmth like the way an empty church or classroom with a lots of windows through which you can only see rain in the street is sad, as though right at the centre of this safe, enclosed feeling is the seed of emptiness.”