My original intention was to upload it like a science report book. However, the uploadable size allowed was too small. I spend hours compressing on different websites to meet the requirement of max 100Mb. The image resolution turns out pretty bad. This is to show an idea of my vision.
The removal of fabric cellulose fibres with a chemical.
Velvet Silk ( has to be cellulose-based)
Place some tissues at the bottom before laying the velvet silk.
Place the silkscreen on the top and pour the etching ink at the edge.
Hold the squeegee at 30 degrees and swipe the ink evenly throughout the screen.
Hold down the fabric while removing the silkscreen.
Wait for the fabric to dry before iron it.
Iron on high heat until the fibre stiffen and the pattern appeared.
Brush out the fibres with a coarse brush.
After the silk has dried, I ironed it for quite long. However, I did not see any visible changes. I sprayed some water to speed up the ironing process. Some portion has turned brown instead. After ironing for a long period, most fibres were removed by the heat. Those portions that weren’t removed were scrubbed out.
It was difficult to scrub out all the fibres completely. Perhaps the ink did not pass through fully at this area or a stiffer brush is needed.
Likewise, the same thing happened here. The portion where is clean can be seen through. The charred surface interestingly smelled like caramel.
It takes a huge deal of patient to iron this. At one point, I was wonder if I could lightly scorch the surface with a lighter. I fear I might set my house on fire so I did not do it. If the process of revealing the textures is much faster, it will be better. The bumpy textures are nice to touch.
Resin pattern can be formed by adding liquid resin and various objects into the mould before it hardened.
Resin and hardener
Plastic cups and ice cream sticks
Casting objects, ink pigments, glitter
Prepare the mould and arrange the objects as desired.
Add the resin and hardener in a plastic cup is 1: 0.3 ratio.
Mix them well with an ice cream sticks.
Pour the solution into the mould and add colouring as desired.
Let it dry for a few days.
I collected some flowers before the class and press them to dry. After adding them to resin, I realised that they went through further decolouration. The flowers are kept for a few days and turned pale white or brown once dipped into the resin. Time seems to freeze the ageing process.
My mould is all vacuum formed.
The mould is created with small metal scrub. The texture is captured with the resin. The front surface is bumpy and the object could only be vaguely seen. If many colours are added within, this blurry effect will look like stained glass.
Next, this large dish is made with a plate coaster. There was not enough resin to cover up everything.
I thought it was pretty interesting to see the rings of circle cast with a different object and merging to the centre. It will be better if I had more resin.
I called it an ice cream bar. It looked so pretty at the back and attracted so many flies. There were a dozen of flies that stuck to just this resin. I had to endure the yucky moment of removing them one by one before the resin harden…
The surface of this mould is bumpy too so the objects could not be seen clearly. It’s a shame.
Lastly is my favourite. It is a galaxy star. The organza added to the resin is quite transparent so it seems that the surface has budged out and form a star. Thick yarns are added to create a clear border.
Working with resin has to be fast. This is a challenge for a slow-poke like me haha. I enjoyed the versatile and being able to change the opacity. This is a great medium to create cool marble effect and storing memories too.
Removal of colour from fabrics through chemical means.
100% cotton fabric
Cotton, chopsticks, container
Materials to create pattern; strings, stencil, creativity
Add bleach to a container and dilute it slightly with water.
Dip a cotton ball with a pair of chopsticks into the solution.
Spread the bleach over the fabric as desired.
Leave the fabric to dry and the pattern will appear over time.
Initially, I used felt as this is the only fabric I had at that moment. I was interested in creating a repetitive pattern through the means of folding.
The first design is zigzag folded together and bind with a string. Next, I tried a coil method by tying a knot to the diagonal fold pattern.
The result wasn’t obvious despite pouring the non-diluted bleach. Nevertheless, you can see some white spots here and there.
I went back home to redo the bleaching and make sure the fabric is 100% cotton or it won’t work.
Rose pattern inspired by smocking design.
Preparation complete! I can’t bear to part with my spray bottle, so I decided to do things the Asian way.
Using a cotton ball to spread the solution gives more control over how the pattern turns out and the intensity of the solution. The cloudy patchy effect is separated into four zones. The most concentrated section feel so intense like a heavy thunderstorm is coming.
This is from the rose pattern. The marks are like little dots sprouting in different scale almost like an actual flower blooming. The flow line can be fluid and random. The composition is so whimsical and beautiful.
The repeated pattern of fat blobs lining into a thin line in the middle resembles the underbelly portion of snakes scales. How the dots are concentrated on a certain area and the slight curve of the centre pattern gives an illusion that a snake had slithered through this area.
Next, I tried using bright coloured fabric.
Wooo!!! So different and beautiful. The mirrored image of bright green pattern with a cream background is undeniably snake scales pattern.
Lastly, I bleached my old sweater.
“To be close to a creature, you have to blend in with them”, they said.
This striped sweater is made to camouflage with the snakes haha!
Sadly, the beautiful amber-colour was gone as it was over-bleached. This time, I was impatient and added a fully concentrated solution. The colour appeared quickly but faded pretty soon. I quickly soaked it in soap water to stop the bleaching. I would like it more if the pattern is consistent.
To have a consistent pattern, it is necessary to plan how the solution is applied and at which area. For impatient people like me, an 80% concentration will do but the fabric has to be washed with soap water soon to stop further bleaching.
With careful planning, this scarf could be made possible.
Chair cushion cover.
Surface removal of material by machine to engrave.
Digital file for print
Prepare the digital files for raster and convert it to DXF file to export to CorelDraw.
Switch on the laser cutting machine and open the machine lid.
Place the acrylic sheet into the machine and check if the nozzle is at the right height with a focus probe.
Load the files into the computer and change the default settings to the appropriate settings written on a laminated paper pasted on the wall.
After making sure the pattern is aligned to the acrylic sheet, close the lid and turn on the air pressure valve and ventilation hood.
Press the on button and let the machine perform the raster and cutting.
Do not watch the operation for too long as the high-intensity light is damaging to our eyes.
Take out the piece after done and switch off everything.
I wanted to make an aquarium to welcome my future turtles hehe.
I rastered their faces with images I found online. The varied thickness in raster looks pretty nice. I further went on to add some elements from the sunny beach.
Mew~ I pieced everything up with a pet-safe silicon sealant. Looks pretty good!
I find the interface in CorelDraw quite outdated. Several things can be done efficiently yet the system does not have the capacity. Things like selecting lines have to be very careful and can quite time-consuming.
The amazing quality of the laser cut is fully expressed in this object. The precision and details are so well done to create a symmetrical lamp.
Mix the thermochromic pigment with silkscreen printing clear base in the ratio of 1:3 in a paper cup.
Lay the table with plastics to protect the surface follow by laying tissues.
Put the fabric on top of the tissues.
Put down the silkscreen on top of the fabric.
Scoop the mixture and spread it on the edge on the silkscreen.
Have someone to hold the silkscreen frame.
Hold the squeegee in a 30 degree and swipe it evenly back and forth till the colour spread throughout the board.
Lift the silkscreen while holding down the fabric.
Let the ink dry and done.
First, I tried the African ink slab that functions as a huge stamp. Stir the slab into a puddle of ink to evenly coat the pattern. Stamp the slab onto the fabric.
The pigment was a bright yellow. The black paint from the slab has interestingly mixed with the pigment and produce a dirty yellow. I thought it was not bad for my first try.
Next up, silkscreen print. It was pretty straight-forward and I love the colour.
This time, I wanted to try with gradient. The grey and pink were spread on different sides of the squeegee when I started. However, everything was mixed together as this approach has been done several times in various ways. Thus, I wasn’t able to get a distinct separation and it became a dark purple print. I am still pretty happy with the outcome and using a bright colour fabric certainly give a strong interest.
I tested the colour changing ability with a heat gun. My print vanish. Pretty cool!
Thermochromic ink is a fascinating medium for its vanishing ability with the application of heat. If a tattoo could be done in thermochromic ink and vanish when people get nervous, it could be tattooed in a more obvious place. Maybe a smile on the face for I have such a poker face. JK. Perhaps a body print with a pattern from nature and we could become chameleons that blend with the environment as we wish! Superpower! Even better if there’s different print reveal at different temperature. If we are in danger, spikes will be shown.
A thermochromic luminous dress.
Shaping materials by using heat and pressure to press it against the mould and form the shape.
Thermoplastic Sheet, object to mould, scissors
Vacuum Forming Machine
Cut the thermoplastic sheet into the maximum size the machine can fit.
Place the mould in the machine.
Place the cut sheet on top of the machine.
Close the ledge and tightly clamp the handle.
Pull out the heater above it.
Wait for the sheet to smoothen, about 1 min will do.
Push back the heater.
On the pump switch while pulling down the level to raise the mould platform.
Release the handle clamps to take the shaped sheet.
Remove the mould.
These samples show how to get a neat edge in the protruding sections. Holes are added to allow air to be sucked in for these areas can be bevelled inwards.
The back of ADM logo.
Complicated edges can form nicely with the right approach.
A flower with a highlighter. If you look carefully, the logo is slightly embedded in the middle. The edge is pretty neat with the vacuum pump technique.
This is my favourite!
Look at the back, its a jelly bean!! So squishy-looking!!
I think vacuum forming is a relaxing thing to do. Ahaha. It is commonly used in the product and food packaging industry. The only thing missing is the colour. If there’s print on top of it, it will be so cool to see it distort.
Molding plastic into 3D patterns with heat and moisture.
100% polyester fabric, materials for molding such as marbles, coins, wood
Aluminium foil, strings, rubber bands
Wrap the fabric around the objects and tightly secure them with strings or rubber bands.
Decide on the layout of the design and wrap the aluminium foil around it.
Put it in the boiling water of around 180 degrees Celsius for 1 hour.
Remove and let it cool before unwrapping the foils and objects.
Caution: Do not place the shaped fabric into the washing machine or it will lose its shape.
Wonderful samples of both success and failed experiments were shown. The origami explorations are very intriguing for I stan origami.
The chiffon polyester creates such bouncy textures. The opacity makes it ideal for a comfortable dress or bag.
I questioned the need to cover the fabric with aluminium foil. The pictures shows the problems faced without it. A consistent fold pressure and colour can only be achieved by wrapping an extra layer of aluminium foil.
I tied these coins with a thread as I have forgotten to bring my rubber bands. I find that thread offers better control in tension and orientation of the object. Whereas the rubber band is thick and does not provide much precision in object layout.
I first tried to lay them flat like mushroom caps.
Next, I tried making the coins stand like butterfly wings.
Preparation for boiling.
It looks the same as how I arrange it! It’s pretty fascinating. I thought the boiling process will shrink or deform it, yet it captures the exact pattern I made.
I designed this origami with rhino and trace it out on two-piece of papers.
These paper will sandwich the fabric like a double mold.
Secure the sheets of paper tightly with staple or stitches. Stapling is a fast solution while sewing them is a better method to capture all the edges.
Final outcome! I overlay two organza to achieve this beautiful colourful look. However, the paper becomes mushy and lost the form in the water. I thought it looks great as the swirl is still visible. Perhaps I will experiment with Yupo paper next time. This special paper can retain the origami pattern even after several boils.
I am definitely in love with this technique for its simplistic yet gorgeous outcome. The potential to bring out the 3D form in a flat surface.
A method to interweave thread-like materials to create a garment.
Yarns, knitting needles/ chopsticks
Fold the yarn thread in half at about 20cm and tie a slipknot at the end.
Follow this tutorial to cast on knitting. After one row, do a purl stitch or any stitch preferred.
I did this.
If the knitting is done, I follow this video to end the knit.
I used a thin glittery yarn in the beginning. I looped it too tight and make it really difficult to pass through each time. After looking at my classmates who used mega thick yarns. I thought I should do a normal-sized yarn and loosen it this time so that I can complete faster.
I used a multicolour acrylic yarn with the colours of a snake. A plain yarn is good for beginner to study knitting before embarking on the fanciful yarns.
After doing a few more rows, the multi-coloured knitting looks kinda distracting. I decided to finish up and maybe try a single-coloured yarn to improve my knitting.
Lol! Not sure why does my piece curl? Maybe because I kept them in my knitting loop and it took the curvature of it or my tension vary across the piece? It was not that great as you can see mistakes here and there but it is my first piece so I am proud of it! Yayy!
It could be a necklace!
Next, I wanted to test out this metallic tape.
It feels a bit stiff but it is actually quite flexible. As it is flat, I had to flip the tape while knitting to prevent having a twisted knot.
The first row came out well. It gets stiffer in narrow sections such as tightening the knot or looping over.
It maintains the form and is soft while stiff at the right spot. Overall, I find this material quite pleasant to work with. The raised texture in purl stitch(?) feels like instant noodle. I noticed it has a reflective ability and thought of knitting fairy lights beside it.
I have this 1-metre long fairy lights with mini LEDs.
The wires are very soft and a breeze to knit. However, the size of these two materials varies drastically. My tendency to tighten things creates a huge contrast that it is off-putting to me. I redo it.
This time I gave a bigger allowance between each stitch and it looks nicer.
I got this soft plastic tube on impulse and knitted it.
It is kinda squishy and tends to slip out of the loop so I had to tightly secure it. I thought a stitch had dropped out and ended up looping one extra stitch.
The translucency really shone under the light. It looks so yummy like honey. I got a little hungry facing this delicious juicy-looking tube.
I used the remaining pink tape to knit. The pink and the orange blended so nicely.
I thought the LEDs could be better to incorporate to showcase the materials’ translucency/ reflective quality. Perhaps I could do double knitting to knit the LEDs with the tube or tape. For that, I will need longer fairy lights.
Knitting can be a physical work out. My hands and wrist hurt after a while. After working an entire day on it, my upper body sore. Nonetheless, the results are stunning and there’s great satisfaction.
Gather the fabric following the design grid. Patterns are formed by pinching the fabric together, quite similar to how origami works.
1, Light/ medium-weighted fabric
2. Needle, threads, pencil or crayon.
1. Select the desired pattern from the internet and transfer the grid pattern onto the back of the fabric.
2. Start by poking in and out of the first point and to the rest in the section. Fasten the thread several times and knot it.
3. Repeat the cycle throughout the drawn grid.
The triangle pattern repeated in a fluidity, organic manner very much like the snake scales. I followed a youtube tutorial to try this pattern.
I bought a small piece of wool felt and drew a 2×2 cm grid.
After sewing the first row, I realised how difficult to work with felt as the fabric is thick. The thicker the fabric, the harder the pattern will show neatly as intended. In the intersection area, it tends to wrinkle. On the second row, I decided to ease the tension to reveal the form better. It was a mistake and the design lopsided. Oops. I learnt that consistency is key in life and sewing.
Next, I tested with light-weighted organza. I find there’s beauty in subtly when a translucent object reveals its form up close. I drew out the grid and tested a small portion. It looks neater but on the third piece, the pattern starts warping inwards again. Perhaps of its crisscross nature and an open-ended edge.
I wanted to try a pattern that it is boxed up yet organic. Rose smocking looks good.
Satin is used and I marked out with pen and highlighter. The highlight seeps through and tinted some parts blue. It may be an interesting touch. I proceeded sewing the box up and small puffs are created.
Next, tweezer is used to twist the puff into a rose and sew the spirals at the back.
Depending on how you sew the rose, the swirl will slight unravel and change. It requires a lot of practice for each rose to look similar. I realised I did not twirl the “rose” more and left a gap between each rose. Oops. I am still happy with my result. This can be a new pattern haha!
I love the grid pattern and tried one more. The whirl smocking.
Start sewing the inner box before sewing the outer frame. Each pinch of the outer frame affects the appearance of the “fence” and mini puff design. Despite how I would like each puff to look similar, the direction and location of the thread being stitched on are important. Thus, I focused on making the “fence” as neat and aligned in height. Each fold of the outer frame helps shape the grid. It is best to follow the tutorial closely for a neat and uniform look.
This pattern is the boss level for the amount of time spent. Wait! It’s not done yet. There is still the whirl.
Push the puff on the back to the front.
It will look like this. Next, pinch the pushed fabric and twirl it with your fingers.
On the back, the “whirl” appeared.
At this point, it dawned to me that the pencils marks were all over the decorative surface. It is quite an awkward design. Looking at the tutorial, the grid was not obvious as it was marked with a light shade of the same colour. I am happy to experiment with the pattern and decided to leave the whirl out. I noticed the shrinkage in this pattern is the biggest. The more scores you put in the pattern, the more it will pinch and shrink.
Smocking is a fun process. As a huge fan of origami, this is quite similar to it with more organic and fluidity achievable. I look forward to exploring more of this and creating a new pattern with my knowledge in origami.
Smocking adds more volume to a design by making it 3D. The extra stitches make the fabric feels more love and cosy. I would be happy to have a smocking cushion or bag.
Gather the fabric between stitches and transform it into an elastic and textured fabric.
Elastic thread, band, fabric
– For thin fabric, attach elastic thread into the bobbin and sew it in parallel lines to obtain a cinched effect.
– For a thicker fabric, use a normal thread to sew.
– Stretch out an elastic band of the length slightly longer than the fabric and sew them together.
I sewed a yellow elastic thread and it works. My itchy hands decided to pull the fabric and tested the elasticity. The fabric came loose and my previous effort was gone. It was really difficult to load the bobbin thread back up to catch with the sewing thread. Thus, I decided to work with a normal bobbin thread and a thin elastic band. I used thin and sheer organza and it was pretty seeing the band of vary opacity like the ocean ripples.
Next, I tried with a thicker elastic band to see the difference. In terms of crease fold, I find that thick band seem to gather more fabric together. However, this judgement may be flawed as the fabric I worked with was small.
I wanted to work on more pieces but the machine jammed too frequent. The thread gathered at one place and stopped the machine. It was difficult to gauge the amount of tension I have to pull on the elastic band and sew the fabric. If I pull too much, the backward force will gather the thread. Too little, the shirring will be gone. I need more practice on this.
Shirring adds a romantic touch to the fabric. It accentuates your curves and embraces your body. The shrivel edge looks like a flower too.
Plastics are fused together through the heat from an iron.
Thin plastics, cellophane, organza, thread and baking paper.
1. Arrange a composition using plastics.
2. Non-fusible materials such as felt or organza can be woven between the plastic as a securing method.
3. Sandwich the materials between two baking sheet and iron over medium heat.
The packaging of a plastic bottle is used. It is interesting to see a scale-like structure formed under heat. However, this plastic is not suitable for fusing as the heat seem to trap internally and caused the “bubble” effect. It does not melt like a normal plastic bag.
I attempted to create a scale pattern with cellophane, fruit packaging, balloons and plastic bag. The balloon does not fuse quite well by itself, so I sandwiched them to use as speckles. A semi-clear plastic sheet is placed on top to test the overlay effect. After ironing, the plastic wrinkled and adds realism to the composition like a snakeskin about to be shed. However, the vibrance of the scales are muted. I included red cellophane for a greater visual interest as highlights and add a sense of depth.
Next, I wanted to try using little styrofoams and painted them. It is not a good idea to paint them before iron as the toxic fume is produced and smell 5 times stronger than fusing plastic bag. I decided to not use them for further fusing.
Lastly, I thought the plastic netting pattern resembles snake scales and wanted to experiment layering multiples together.
I varied the colours of the netting and woven organza into it for a colourful pattern.
I overlayed the fruit netting vertically with the aim of creating a long pattern that has dynamic and movement. The opacity is varied, letting some portions see-through while some sealed off with colour plastic bags.
Tada, my end product! Does it look like a snake moving?
I am quite happy with it and I realised the multiple holes in the netting can be used as a hook. Some portion felt empty, I then inserted a pink fabric within the holes and sewed a small puff. If I fold this in half, it can be a bag!
I was curious if I could achieve precision and create a structure like an inflatable. I used a soldering iron to seal the edges and make a small pouch. It survived the water test. It is importable to get a good grasp of the time taken to seal. If too much time spends, a hole will bore.
I tried a much complex form; a spike. Two pieces of triangle pieces are sealed together to form a cone. After flipping them over, I sealed it to a flat sheet with a hole. It survives the water test too. The spike wrinkled quite badly because it is small. This form is good to create ears or horn but it is too complex that it took several tries to work.
Plastic fusing is common in the commercial world where sustainability is promoted. Durable products like bags can be made from plastic fusing.
Fused plastic can also act as a fabric. How cool is that jacket! It’s the perfect wear to market your company in the public. HAHA!
Water Soluble Melding
Glittery threads, yarn, water-soluble sheet
Arrange your composition on top of a water-soluble sheet.
Use pins to hold down the collage materials before using the sewing machine.
Sew the design in zigzag or grid manner. The larger the gap between the threads, the more it shrinks.
Wash the material to soften the starch binding. The more binding remains, the stiffer the product will be after dried.
Mould the work over a desired form and leave it to dry.
I obtained glittery threads by loosening them from a piece of organza fabric.
I wanted to replicate the shed snakeskin, its ghostly appearance with iridescence scales left. The sewing thread pattern is made as uniform as it can be. This is my first time using a sewing machine. The fabric gets caught in the machine many times. It is still quite difficult for me but I will master it!
I think it is pretty not bad for my first time. Although my grids were too many and steal the attention from the glittery threads.
The substance is quite sticky and mushy. I do not like the feeling of it and washed it too eagerly. Lots of binders came off. Oops. Finger cross that it stays in shape!
As expected, the form is loose and does not retain the shape well. Ah well.
I felt the design is quite flat and should experiment with a variety of yarns next time. Perhaps this can be made into a hanging sculpture.
Overall, I like this technique and has lots of potential for experimentation. It will be good to add more interesting element within, such as a fabric badge.
Loose threads can transform into a stiff structure. Transparency can be added within the material. These abilities are good to create organic 3D forms.
Draw or paint the paper with fabric crayons or inks.
For direct printing, sandwich the paper and fabric between two baking sheets to prevent ink transferring beyond the fabric. Iron at a high temperature and temperature for the image to be successfully transferred over.
For indirect printing, do the same and insert imprint material between the paper and fabric. It will capture the inverted image. The orientation of the image (i.e. name) must be flipped for the right image to appear. Use a heat press and set the temperature to about 147 degrees. Leave it for around 1 minute and remove.
For the wet technique, I wanted to see if the press result can capture details and different vibrancy. Dry strokes of yellow, red and green paint with small gaps in between were intended to see if the gaps will be covered. Solid multicoloured blocks were painted to be used as the background for imprint materials.
These are all printed with the heat press.
The heat melts the inks and spread them to the fabric through sublimation. The details are slightly blurred but it is still much better than I thought. Most of the gaps in between the strokes and the different yellow colour intensity can be seen.
Print time is tested at 45 seconds and 1 minute. Not a clear difference is observed. In the repeated third print, the inks in the image have lost much of its colour and appeared lighter.
Different materials such as paper with holes, wire gauze and prawn shell are tested for imprinting. The thickness of wire gauze prevented the inks from spreading to the fabric and left an empty print block. Thinner material is tested and obtained the same result. Next, I tried with an organic material; a dried prawn shell. The voluminous shell increases the unprintable areas. Unexpectedly, a flower pattern is born from the failed areas. I like this happy accident.
From the mistakes, I decided to go for much thinner material and used the loose thread of the fabric for the imprint.
Iron produced a much brighter and intense colour. The control of pressure in the ironing process makes such an impact on the printing outcome. I am happy with this imprint and the iron is an instant winner for me.
I doodled things that come to my mind.
After seeing my classmates went out to grab textures and shade over it, I tried that too. This angry monkey is formed with a common element from a standard classroom. Can you guess what is it?
Wet & dry transfer
I did a wet printing first and found the orange streaks too jarring. I overlayed and dry-transferred the cutouts. The result is pretty cool. I like how it is slightly see-through and the intense orange against the green bush remind me of the Australia bush fire.
I quite like my prints. Fabric inks have a greater potential than crayons to create more variety of images such as gradient and diffusion. Depending on the concentration, the colour will change too. I like the unpredictability in fabric inks. Whereas crayons get quite a straightforward result except for blue colour.
Overall, I like direct transfer for it offers more control. Perhaps if the pressure or temperature of the heat press increase, a much better result will be yield.
Transfer print to wood as a souvenir.
A dress can be entirely designed by you.
A tote bag will be good since the colour does not run off unless it rains.