Exploratory Research

Previously, in Task 1A, I mentioned that I wanted to do about screen time; how it is affecting us and what can be done to reduce screen time. However the topic was too broad and I could not decide which segment I want to focus on.

Hence, I selected my other option which is Oral Health. Oral Health or dental care is an issue among children who are 6 to 12 years old. Quoted from an online report in 2014,’one in two Singapore kids has rotten teeth’. A dental officer, Dr Matthew Lau, said: “We are seeing more children with decayed and filled teeth.” Bad oral health can get worse as children grow.

This survey is targeted to primary school students. The objective of this survey is to understand their views on oral health. The questions are meant to be direct and simple as young children have short attention span.

  1. Age
  2. How many time do you brush your teeth a day?
  3. Do you floss your teeth? 
  4. Which of the following food is good for your teeth? Option given: Bread, candy, cheese, chocolate, milk, nuts, potato chips, tofu, vegetables
  5. How many time do you visit a dentist in a year?
  6. How do you feel when you visit the dentist? 
  7. Do you know that bad oral health can lead to more problem as you grow? 
  8. Any suggestions to encourage you and your friends to take care of your teeth?

In total, there are 16 respondents.

  1. Half of them are 12 years old, while the other half are between 6 to 11 years old.
  2. 75% of them brush their teeth twice a day
  3. 12.5% of the respondents floss their teeth, while 68.8% don’t.
  4. Majority selected milk, vegetables and bread. Minority of the respondents selected candy, chocolate and potato chips.
  5. 68.8% visit the dentist once in a year.
  6. Majority answered scared or wanting it to end fast (negative response). Some answered ok (neutral response). Minority gave a positive response such as “I like going to the dentist to keep my teeth clean.”
  7. All except one answered that they know bad oral health can lead to more problem as you grow
  8. Suggestions given are making brushing more fun and easy, having video, make dental less painful and many more.

From the data above, my insights are:

  • Respondents do what they are told or thought to do such as brushing their teeth twice, visiting the dentist and avoid food that are bad for their teeth.
  • Majority of the respondents say that they have bad experiences going to the dental. Minority say that going to the dental is ok, they enjoy getting their teeth clean.
  • Majority need to understand that flossing is an essential part of oral health too, not only brushing and visiting the dentist. Flossing is helps in preventing cavities, bad breath and gum disease.
  • Respondents might be still be a bit confuse on which food are good for their teeth. Example: nuts contains phosphorus which is good for strong teeth. But only 31% selected nuts as a healthy food for our teeth.

Task 1A: Exploratory Research

The 4 current issues are:

  1. The Stigma of Doing Things Alone
  2. Plastic Pollution
  3. Oral Health
  4. Screen Time**

The Stigma of Doing Things Alone

To be honest, I do most of the things by myself or alone such as shopping or watching a movie. I enjoy the peaceful time I have with myself, and of course, the freedom to operate on my own schedule. That is one of my biggest pleasures I find in doing things alone.

But why doing things alone seen as a socially unacceptable to do? Why is it always presumed that I have no friends to eat with? Or that people don’t want to do things alone?


By societal norms, activities such as eating out or seeing a movie are viewed as social activities to be enjoyed with others. But seeing someone out and about on their own does not equate to him or her being lonely, or having no friends. It grows exhausting whether one is an introvert or extrovert because we all need a little “me” time.

People with different point of view in doing things alone  —  example seen as an  incredibly uncomfortable by the idea  —  are the ones who cannot be in solitude with their minds.



Plastic Pollution

For years, the world has been relying on the ocean as a dumping ground for our plastic waste. Plastic pollution has become one of the ‘hot topics’ in environmental issues. Due to the rapidly increasing production of disposable plastic products, it overwhelms the world’s ability to deal with them.

Due to plastic pollution on the ocean or by the beach, millions of animals are killed by plastics every year, from birds to fish to other marine organisms. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by plastics.

Other than that, Microplastics is also a major issue. Microplastics are tiny pieces of plastic which come from larger plastics that have degraded over time. Sea animals often eat it because of its small size. And plastic contains toxic chemicals, which can increase the chance of disease and affect reproduction when eaten by sea animals. After ingesting microplastics, the sea animals, may suffer for months or years before they die. Hence reducing the number of sea animals. 

If plastic pollution are not reduced or resolved, there will be more plastic in the sea, higher rate of animal death and this can lead to more endangered species. 


Oral Health

Report in 2014 shows that one in two Singapore kids has rotten teeth. Dr Matthew Lau, a dental officer with the School Dental Service, said: “We are seeing more children with decayed and filled teeth.” This can be due to a few reasons: 

  1. poor brushing techniques,
  2. poor diet (do not know which food can cause tooth decay);
  3. afraid of going to the dental which lead to irregular dental check ups.

Parent also plays a part in taking care of their child’s oral health such as instiling good health habits from young and supervision the child brushing habits. Instead of using the dentist as a threat to get your child to stop eating sugary snacks, parent should take care of the child’s diet and know the foods that can causes tooth decay. 

When a child starts to have oral issue at a young age and not going for regular dental check ups, this might carry over to his adulthood. Hence, it is better to start practicing good oral health at a young age.


Screen Time**

“Research shows heavy amounts of screen time affects sleep patterns and overall brain development,” said Linsly Donnelly.


In recent health article, based in UK, researchers say the number of children 13 to 16 years old who need glasses has doubled the past 10 years. This is due to the increase in screen time which is causing eyesight problems in teens and young adults. Those children are spending 26 hours a week in front of an electronic screen, including televisions, which mean that their screen time is about 3.7 hours daily. While Singaporean adults spend 3.7 hours online every day, excluding time at work.

In the past, about 1960s and 1970s, kids were warned not to sit near to the big boxy televisions because this can cause eyesight problems. But now, with the advancement of technology, computers and cell phones have been household staples. Children engage electronic devices most of their time. They have the tendency to hold screens closer to sensitive eyes due to their short arms. 


With the number of phones and iPads out there, (kids) aren’t getting the proper development with their eyes. This can affect their sleep patterns and overall growth.

Who does it affect?

Children, age range of 6 to 16 years old.

Target audience and why?

Children, age range of 6 to 16 years old, and parents.

By having parents as target audience, they can be more aware of the consequences of screen time.

Visual Research:

Eye Care 20 20 20: Put Down Your Mobile
NOT FOUND by Maribel Martel
Illustration book, Amanda the Panda: Outdoor Play Keeps Myopia

Among all 4 visual research, it can be seen that there are 2 target audience here – Children & Adult. The first two visual research has a minimalist style, which is lesser colours and more text. While the last visual research, which is the illustration book, has pictures and colours.  It uses panda as metaphor and the illustrations are based on storyline, so that children are able understand it


Research: Bags across time, cultures and geographies

Topic 1: Bags across time, cultures and geographies

Why were there bags in the 15 – 18 century?

They were necessary for carrying money and other personal items, since clothes hadn’t yet been fitted out with pockets. The introduction of pockets started towards the end of the 16th century meant that the men’s bags slowly disappeared in the course of the 17th century. From then on, bags belonged almost exclusively to the women’s domain.

1600 – 1700 A.D. – A Bag for Every Purpose

Velvet pouch with silver balls, the Netherlands, 1st half of 17th century – Purpose to carry money for women
A beadwork purse with inscription ‘Remember the Pore 1630’, England, 1630 – designed for wedding bags or for carrying a Bible.

1700 – 1800 A.D. – Hiding and Showing Off

Abiti Antichi Chatelaine in argento –  small utensils, such as perfumed ball and scissors can be attached to it

1900 – 2000 A.D. – New Forms

Women have bags for every occasion at any time of the day.

Leather evening bag with enamelled adornment, France, ca. 1915
Magazine clutch ‘Jours de France’, Hong Kong, 1970’s


Insight: Bag size used to be small in the past, now it is bigger as more woman are employed.

How bag can give signal:

“If the Queen places her handbag on the table at dinner, it signals that she wants the event to end in the next five minutes.’

China’s handbag history

Different kinds of texture

Beaded bag
Linen bag




Tassen Museum: Museum of Bags and Purses

A Timeline of the Most Coveted It Bags Through the Years

How Queen Elizabeth Uses Her Purse As a Secret Code

Good Orient – Fine Asian good

Research Critique 2: Third Space, Third Person

  • What is the third space to you?

My understanding of a third space is that we are in different places physically and we become one virtually, example through the Facebook live.

'transformative social space into the online medium' (Randall Parker, 2017) 
  • How do we collapse boundaries in the third space?
'telematic work, which aimed to bring together artists that were separated by physical and geographical boundaries.' (Maria Chatzichristodoulo’s Cyberformance)

As mention above, one of the ways to collapse the boundaries in a third space is using telematics. For our micro project, Minjee and I were at the same geographical boundaries but we were at different places, separated by the physical boundaries. And through telematics work which is the Facebook Live, we were able to collapse the physical boundary and become one.

Minjee & I becoming one in a third space
  • How do we create closeness and intimacy in the third space despite being in different locations?
Projection of half of our faces using the split screen

Firstly, it is through the life size projection of our faces. By using the split screen, we created a third person by projecting half of our faces, like we chatting with the viewer face to face.


Copying each other hand gestures

Secondly, is copying each other movements as it was our first time doing a project together. Hence by copying each other, we break down the awkwardness between us. This also creates a certain level of comfortableness between us.


  • How did you virtually touch, hold objects, create a “third” body using different gestures despite being in different locations?
Our drawings

We created a third person by combing both of us, with the use of split screen. One of the things that we did was drawings. It is like a 2 separate drawings that become 1. From the viewers point of view, they will see that all the things are done by one person.

Research Critique 1

Research Critique 1

  • How is your crowd-sourced time-based artwork a departure from traditional art making by a single artist?

With the use of social media, Instagram, the artist will post instructions and polls of the game, asking the audience to vote, who can do better, through the polling systems. The audience have the freedom to vote between the two choices. (Fig 1.) And once they finished voting, they are able to see the result of the poll instantly. After the polling session ended, the artists will take a video of themselves competing the game against each other. This is to meet the expectation of the audience and the unknown result.

Hence this is different from traditional art making by a single artist because it enables the audience to have control of the outcome, by predicting who can do the games better.

Fig 1. From left to right: Instruction, Poll & Screenshot of the Video
  • How is this method of peer-to-peer social interaction as found in open-source practices a departure from traditional proprietary modes of artistic creation and production?

It allow audience to input their thoughts and opinion through the polling system in Instagram. And with the power of social media and connections, not only our circles of friends are able to vote and watch the videos, but other people from different types of background and culture are able to join in the fun and input their opinion.

Quoted from Jeran Fraser, What Happens When Crowdsourcing And Social Media Merge:

"From crowdsourcing their opinions on a potential product idea to building contests that invites users' thoughts, social media uses crowdsourcing as an invaluable tool more often than we realize."
  • How is your crowd-sourced time-based artwork similar or different from the examples show in our open-source artists discussion?

Artwork chosen: Craig D. Giffen, Human Clock (2001 – ongoing)


  • Both works include the audience thoughts by inputting something. For Craig D. Giffen’s work, audience are able to submit images of the time and it will be shown in the website at that point of time. And for our micro project, audience are able to submit their thoughts and opinion through polling and instantly they can see the result.
  • Both works are close source works as only the person, team or organization are able to maintain, control and modify it at certain time. For example Craig D. Giffen’s work, he is able to modify the layout of his website. (Fig 2.) However we, as audience, can’t modify it and we can’t control the image according to the timing. As for our micro project, we as a group can control and modify the questions we set for polling.
Fig 2. Sreenshot Craig D. Giffen, Human Clock Website


  • Both works have different timeframe. For Craig D. Giffen’s work, he’s work is a continuous timeframe where audience can continuously submit images of the time. As for our micro project, our instruction, questions and videos has a limited timeframe. Each instruction, question, video can last up to 15 seconds as this is one of the default setting of Instagram.
Quoted from Marc Garrett, DIWO (Do-It-With-Others): Artistic Co-Creation as a Decentralized Method of Peer Empowerment in Today’s Multitude:  

"Even though the Web and DIWO possess different qualities they are both essentially, forms of networked commons. They both belong to the same digital complexity, each are open systems for human and technological engagement."

For our micro project, both the games and Instagram have different qualities, such as the games are played physically but the Instagram is through the web, and both of it needs a network in common. For the games, we need audience to input their thoughts by voting. Hence with the use of Instagram and the power of connections, we can easily get more people to join in and collate the votes instantly. In conclusion, social media uses crowdsourcing as a very useful tool to gain more people to participate in a common goal.


DIWO (Do-It-With-Others): Artistic Co-Creation as a Decentralized Method of Peer Empowerment in Today’s Multitude.

What Happens When Crowdsourcing and Social Media Merge

What is open source?



New assignment coming through.

So before I start on the new assignment, I went to search on the definition of 間 MA’s OBSCURE CITY of VOIDS.

So after a bit of research, I can roughly guess what this project is about. To my understanding, it is about creating or designing a building or architecture with the use of voids. Or an installation as in the previous lesson we did some sounds and our homework was to interpret the rhythm and express it.

However, I feel that this project is somehow related to gestalt and the use of negative space. To my understanding, gestalt is about the overall view rather than a part of it. And there is also a combination of meaning in it – smaller part has a different meaning than the overall view.

Other than that, I also did a research on Modular structure.

Based on Wikipedia, Modular design, or “modularity in design”, is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, that can be independently created and then used in different systems.

Other sources states that Modular Architecture refers to the design of any system composed of separate components that can be connected together. The beauty of modular architecture is that you can replace or add any one component (module) without affecting the rest of the system.

Some examples of Modular design:

Plugin Tower

What I like from this modular design that, it can be added on and expand the building by just repeating the basic form. (source)

Alberto Sanchez’ Modular ROOTS Planter Rethinks the Traditional Trellis

Similarly to the first example, this modular design for plants can be extend to the gardener’s preferences. (source)

BA_LIK / Vallo Sadovsky Architects

Among the 3 examples, this is my favourite modular design. As firstly, it has a minimal design. Secondly each component of the design can be extended and separated for different purposes.

To conclude modular design, from my understand,  is a part that can be added on by repeating the same part. Other than that, different purpose can be inserted when the parts are separated or compact together.

Sequencing Image – Part 2 (Draft 1 & research)

Draft 1

For the draft 1, I did not edit the images yet, instead I wanted to focus on the storyline and sound. However, after consultation, I realise it was the wrong thing to do and I had to redo most of it.

The problems that I encounter while doing draft 1 were:

  • Sound transition – how to make it flow smooth? Solution: overlap the sound or show the setting of the place
  • What should I consider if I want to input narrations into it? Solution: hierarchy of the sounds

The comments given for draft 1:

  • Missing of genre – It can be horror as it has creatures in it or fantasy where colours can be added in
  • Comedy part feels abit awkward
  • Image has to be brighten up – some are too dark and use the principles of lighting
  • Hieracy of the sound

Suggested steps to be taken after draft 1:

  • Find reference images of fantasy or horror – the use of colours and lighting
  • Think of a genre – it will help me when adding in the sound
  • Look for films with similar genre
  • Edit the images – colours & light
  • Then Insert sound

    My notes during and after consultation
Came up with my storyboard

Research on the animals

Dog as the main character

  • Dog are closely related to humans – in terms of attitude, social & behaviour
  • Dominant
  • Leader
  • Campanion
  •  Some dogs are socialable – able to pat them although you are a stranger
  • “It’s better to be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.” – it’s better to be a big part of something small, than a small part of something big.
  • “Dog eat dog.” – People will do anything to be successful.
  • “Like a blind dog in a meat market.” – Out of control, frenzied, or aimless. Unable to take action in the face of many choices.

Fox as the second lead

  • hunt or sleep alone
  • Fox is most active after the sun
  • It even hunts by stalking and pouncing (a sudden spring/swooping) on its prey.
  • loyalty – they take care of their family
  • Playful, friendly and curious
  • Adaptable & Independent
  • “clever as a fox” – extremely clever, and remarkably resourceful – from hunting strategies to camouflague 

Rabbit as supporting character

  • sound navigator – in the dark
  • Sensitives and Seers
  • Hide 
  • movement – hopping in zip and zag
  • quick witted
  • Rabbits are quiet, but they let you know they’re around
  • Rabbits can make friends with your other pets – friendly

Bear as supporting character

  • Bears are highly evolved social animals with intelligence comparable to that of the great apes.
  • Bears often share friendship, resources and security.
  • Bears are not mean or malicious; they are very gentle and tolerant animals.
  • Bears can be empathetic, fearful, joyful, playful, social and even altruistic.
  • They’re all individuals and have unique personalities.
  • Bears communicate using body language, sounds and smells. 
  • A bear’s hearing ability is excellent
  • Bears see in colour and have good vision, similar to humans.

Input the research into the character’s personality 


  • Newbie in a new school
  • Shy, introvert
  • Awkward at first, but becomes more comfortable after knowing someone
  • Why she become a dog? It is the closest related to humans


  • Mysterious
  • Active after during the dark
  • Playful, friendly and curious – curious about the new girl


  • Sensitives and Seers
  • Quiet, but they let you know they’re around


  • Gentle
  • Communicate using body language, sounds and smells.

The Hunger Games

The Hunger Games universe is a dystopia set in Panem, a country consisting of the wealthy Capitol and 12 districts in varying states of poverty. Every year, children from the districts are selected to participate in a compulsory annual televised death match called The Hunger Games.

My choose 4 quotes are:

  • Katniss, the girl who was on fire!
  • “I volunteer as tribute!”
  • Here’s some advice. Stay alive.
  • “Hope is the only thing stronger than fear.”

So before starting to design it, I research more in-depth about the main actress, Katniss and her characteristic.

  • Katniss, 16 years old
  • Black hair with a long braid
  • Katniss’s first name comes from a plant called Sagittaria or arrowhead, another name for this plant is katniss
  • Hunter, archer, trapper, tree-climber
  • From district 12 – a coal-mining district – poorest and least populated
  • Survivor – Work to help her family to survive by hunting
  • Independent, strong woman with no knowledge about romance
  • She has trust Issues – as it can be seen in the games
  • Well educated on plants – she knows which plant is edible/poisonous
  • Beautiful voice that makes the birds silent – whistle sound
Her first dress in The Hunger Games
Her second dress in The Hunger Games and it became a mocking jay

“Katniss, the girl who was on fire!” 

  • Fire to show fierceness
  • Her dress turn into flames as she twirls
  • It was designed by Cinna, someone who Katniss trust during the games
  • In the later series, the dress changed to fire then to a new dress.
  • (a song) Girl on fire by Alicia Keys: Looks like a girl, but she’s a flame. So bright, she can burn your eyes

“I volunteer as tribute!” – Katniss

  • Katniss volunteer in replace of her sister, Prim.
  • She cares a lot for her sister and mum
  • Tribute as a 74th Hunger Games – can the context be changed to other games?
  • She knew it was a risk to volunteer, as there can only be 1 survivor in each games

ideation: I volunteer as tribute in a food completion games – something relevant to most people as food is one of the trend. 

“Here’s some advice. Stay alive.”

  • Stay alive in the hunger games – Can it be change to other context? Stay alive for school > add abit of humour 
  • Katniss wanted some advice from her guardian

ideation: Phone, battery low > said to it to stay alive. Or during submission week, we had to stay alive during the night time. I intended to put humour in it. 

“Hope is the only thing stronger than fear.”

  • Said by President Snow of the Capitol
  • Katniss wanted to go against the Capitol
  • She has fear of going against the Capitol/President Snow
  • But her Hope is wanting to stop the hunger games as it is killing people and hunger games is an entertainment for the Capitol

After consulting my ideation, it wouldn’t be able to work as it will be difficult for audience to decode the message of the story through the movie context.