It’s raining men

Question 2: Language, sexuality and music – discuss the relationship between language, sexuality and popular music production (you can focus on one song or several, up to you)

Music is prevalent in our lives. As a matter of fact, all cultures have their own type of music. Popular music production these days are centralized around the notion of sex. Research has shown that about 92% of the 174 songs studied, contained ‘reproductive messages’ (Grandoni, 2011). Reproductive messages here would, of course, be referring to messages about sex. It was also noted that songs that made it to the top ten chart have more sexual messages(Grandoni, 2011).

The song Bed by J. Holliday is one of the many popular songs that contain sexual messages. There is an excerpt of lyrics which says “wrap me in your legs, and love you til’ your eyes roll back, I’m tryna put you to bed” . Even though it is a short sentence of lyrics, it is clear that the song is trying to draw a mental picture of the sexual activity so that listeners are able to imagine the situation. The lyrics are clearly and perfectly describing the sexual activity in detail. Therefore, when listeners are able to imagine the sexual activity, it will arouse the listeners.

Another song that we can take a look at is Peacock by Katy Perry. The lyrics to the song is “Are you brave enough to let me see your peacock? Don’t be a chicken boy, stop acting like a beeotch”. From the lyrics, the peacock is definitely not referring to the animal peacock but it is an innuendo for penis. Even Katy Perry said that her song Peacock is like the world’s biggest innuendo and stated that songs with her would have a lot of double entendres. Hence, innuendos are used in lyrics of popular music to make the song more enjoyable and to let the listener’s imagination run wild.

In conclusion, popular music usually contains explicit sexual messages in their lyrics be it in the form of a description of the sexual activity or as an innuendo. The play with listener’s imagination and arousal through words is the key factor in making the song successful. Hence, there is definitely a relationship between language, sexuality and popular music production.

Question 3: Give a brief intro to the notion of ‘performativity’ to someone who’s got no clue about it. Illustrate with examples pertaining to language and sex(uality) and/or desire.

Performativity can be defined as the underlying conditions that make performance possible (Cameron & Kulick, 2003). In addition, according to Austin (1997), performatives are language as action. Examples of performativity utterances are such as ‘I hereby now pronounce you husband and wife’ or ‘I promise you’. Therefore, performativity is an action that is conveyed through words in speech. In other words, performativity is a speech act. The difference between performativity and performance is that performativity is a process through which a subject is creating while performance is what a subject does and it is only one dimension of performativity.

An example of a performative act in relation to sexuality can be seen in male conversations which involve gossiping about gay men. The gossiping about gay men is a performative act of speaker’s heterosexuality (Cameron & Kulick, 2003). They are trying to validate their sexuality as a straight man by showing strong dislike for gay men and by bringing gay men down. Another example of performativity can be seen in drag queens who uses linguistic styles that index socially conflicting positions (Cameron & Kulick, 2003).


Austin, J. L. 1997 [1962], How To Do Things with Words, 2nd edn, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Cameron, D., & Kulick, D. (2003). Language and Sexuality

Grandoni, D. (2011). 92% of Top Ten Billboard Songs Are About SexThe Atlantic. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from

J Holliday bed lyrics – Google Retrieved 18 April 2018, from

katy perry peacock – Google Retrieved 18 April 2018, from

Vena, J. (2010). Katy Perry Says ‘Peacock’ Is ‘The World’s Biggest Innuendo’MTV News. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from


If you know what I mean

“I’m going blind from this sweet-sweet craving, whoa-oh
Let’s lose our minds and go fucking crazy
Ah ya ya ya ya I keep on hoping we’ll eat cake by the ocean

 (“DNCE Cake by the ocean lyrics – Google Search”, n.d.)”

As we all know, food is a basic necessity in life. Everyone must eat and drink to stay alive. However, food has other connotations apart from the physical, nutritional substance that keeps you alive. In point of fact, food is relatable in all aspects of life. Food holds universal function in it. One of it is the power of food as a form of euphemism or dysphemism metaphor for the forbidden topic of sex.

 A metaphor is defined as an implied similarity that identifies one thing with another (Shaw, 1972). Meanwhile, euphemism is known for making a taboo concept mentionable and less offensive (Hojati, 2012, p. 553). Dysphemism is the opposite of euphemism. However, many euphemisms and dysphemism are structured based on metaphors conceptually (Gathigia, Ndung’u, & Njoroge, 2015, p. 21). Thus, food is one of the concepts used as a euphemism or dysphemism metaphor to refer to the topic of sex.

Sex is pervasive in everyday life, but it is also a topic of taboo and forbidden in the society at the same time. One of the ways to cope with the realm of sex is through metaphor. Sex is expressed as metaphors in many different ways, and one of them is by using food. These metaphors can either be in a pleasant or derogatory form namely euphemism or dysphemism metaphor. The conceptual metaphor ‘Sex is eating’ exemplify euphemism metaphor because it refers to sex as a physical event and a type of savoury food. However, the conceptual metaphor ‘Woman is a dish’ is the complete opposite. This is a form of dysphemism metaphor because it is used to degrade woman as an object or food to be savoured. We can note that food is not directly present in the phrases, but sex and women are directly linked to food. Thus, making it a form of food metaphor.

Food innuendos is another way of talking about this forbidden topic. Innuendo can be defined as insinuation about someone’s character (Metzger, & Fleetwood, 2005). Innuendo is similar to metaphor but with a slight difference in terms of directness. A metaphor is known to be more direct as compared to innuendo. Words such as ‘cookie’ or ‘cheesecakes’ are examples of innuendos and are used to denote sex objects as a goal to be enjoyed or eaten (Fernández, 2008, p. 99). Those words are often used on women as to equate women as a sex object. Thus, reducing women status to objects and also accompanied by the association of powerlessness, unanimity and procurable (Bucholtz, Liang, & Sutton, 2000, p.146). In the book, The Sexual Politics of Meat written by Adams (1990), women and animals are considered to be at the lowest level of the hierarchy. In other words, women are the victim of patriarchy. Therefore, it does not matter if the object is a real animal or a woman, it shows the male power and dominance when used metaphorically or through innuendo.

Food metaphors and innuendos are widely used to refer to sex. A restaurant in Sydney known as Paramount have dishes named like ‘Creaming Cock’ (Probyn, 1999). This occurrence is not only found in restaurants, but it is also accessible through television series. One of the series called Two Fat Ladies, show conversations between two ladies who talk about meatballs. In this case, they were referring to ‘real faggots’ (Probyn, 1999). Thus, we can note that food is used to represent sex and sexual identities erotically.  The music industry is not left out from joining the bandwagon. The music industry also uses food metaphors and innuendos as well. The excerpt at the beginning of this writing is actually the lyrics from the song ‘Cake by the ocean’ sang by an American band, DNCE. As someone naive and young, I was unaware that ‘cake by the ocean’ actually means sex on the beach until a little birdy told me so. Despite people of all ages knowing what a cake is, it does not imply that everyone comprehends the connotations behind it. Hence, the music industry uses food as metaphors to not only flaunt their creativeness but to also blur out the forbidden connotations behind the metaphors allowing people of all ages to enjoy their music. Thus, food metaphors and innuendos can be exclusive. Factors such as age, the generation they are born in and the food itself play a role in determining the in-group or out-group nature of the metaphors and innuendos. Therefore, this brings us to the next point.

Food is not chosen to be used as a metaphor to symbolize sex randomly. A preliminary review was done by Spang (2011), which shows two criteria that need to be fulfilled to become a metaphor for sex. But first, there is a pre-requisite. It is to understand the physical attribute of the food in order to fathom the similarity of the food and sexual act described. Moving on, the first criteria states that the food has to be local products, imported staples or well-known luxuries (Spang, 2011). Foods which are not normally consumed or familiar to the audience are rarely used as a metaphor for sex. It is important for the audience to recognize the food so that people will appreciate and enjoy the connotation or the pun of the metaphor. Second criteria that the food has to have to qualify as a food metaphor for sex is when the food has similar physical traits to some body parts or physical act described (Spang, 2011). Physical traits here would refer to the similarity of the shapes, smell, taste, texture as well as the colour of the food to the body parts or the sexual activity (Spang, 2011). Due to these criteria, different cultures will have different food selected as metaphors for sex. Hence, culture also plays a role in the determining what gets selected as food metaphor for sex. Different culture will also have different functions of food as a metaphor.

For western culture, the main reason for using food as metaphors to symbolize sex is due to the pleasurable feeling that one gets from eating food is very similar to when experiencing orgasm. For example, Philippe d’Orléans was said to enjoy well-prepared food and stated that ‘dish seductive to the eye and palate could give him orgiastic gratification’ (Aresty, 1980, p. 34). Christian ideologies may have further contributed to this perception of food as a sex symbol because it has always associate women’s flesh to food (Kemasang, 1989). However, in Sinaean Asian and China, they do not quite agree with mixing food and sex together. They strictly separate food as food and sex as sex (Kemasang, 1989). Instead, they would use food to describe their loved ones’ appearance. For example, they would call someone a ‘pau face’ to indicate that the person has a chubby face and it looks like the food ‘pau’. Hence, the usage of food metaphors varies for different cultures.

All in all, food is used in euphemism metaphors, dysphemism metaphors and innuendos to represent sex. But, this does not mean that food will supersede sex as the foundation of identities. It will not happen. No matter how widespread food metaphors and innuendos are, sex or sexual identities is irreplaceable by food because firstly, food has functions other than being associated with sex. It would be inappropriate in some cultures if food officially holds two meanings; the actual nutritional substance you eat for survival and the sexual identities or sex. Bear in mind that food is not the only metaphor to symbolize sex, but it is the most readily available (Probyn, 1999). Secondly, food is just used as a linguistic device to bridge the forbidden topic into a conversation. With the help of euphemism, dysphemism metaphors and innuendos, the forbidden topic of sex is tone down. Although dysphemism metaphors can be offensive, the offensiveness is not that great. Some may even find it sexually stimulating. Also, simply because it is food! Food is relatable in all aspect and is relevant in everyone lives. Therefore, food is used because most people are able to relate and comprehend in some ways or another.

There should be some sort of connection between food and sex which allow food to be a linguistic device in bridging the forbidden topic to a conversation. Hence, there is a set of requirements that food has to fulfil to qualify as one of the metaphors for sex. They are basically the food’s popularity in the population and relevance in terms of the sexual act and the physical traits of the food. The more popular and similarity of the sexual act to the traits of the fruits, the more likely it is used as a metaphor for sex.

Culture also plays a part in determining the role of food as a metaphor for sex. Due to the difference in cultures and geographical location, there is a variety of food used as metaphors and innuendos for sex.  There are also different perceptions towards food used as a metaphor for sex. In western culture, the pleasurable feeling from eating food is very similar to the pleasure experienced during a sexual act. However, in Asian cultures, food metaphors are more usually associated with an appearance. Hence, food is not only necessary for our survival in the world, but it is also essential for our social and physical life. So, the next time be careful to not spill Alfredo sauce all over you! If you know what I mean.



Adams, C. (1990) The Sexual Politics of Meat: A feminist Vegetarian Critical Theory. New York: Continuum

Aresty, E.B. (1980) The Exquisite Table. A History of French Cuisine. New York: Bobbs- Merrill.

Metzger, M., & Fleetwood, E. (2005). Attitudes, innuendo, and regulators: challenges of interpretation. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, c2005.

Shaw, H (1972). Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: McGrawHill, Inc.

Spang, L. (2011). Fruits and Culture: A Preliminary Examination of Food-for-Sex Metaphors in English-language Caribbean Music. Folklore Forum. Retrieved 21 March 2018, from

Bucholtz, M., Liang, A.C., & Sutton, L.A. (2000). Reinventing identities: the gendered self in discourse. Oxford University Press, New York.

Fernández, E. C. (2008). Sex-Related Euphemism and Dysphemism: An Analysis in Terms of Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Journal of the Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies, 30(2), 95-110.

Gathigia, M. G., Ndung’u, R. W., & Njoroge, M. C. (2015). SEXUAL INTERCOURSE EUPHEMISMS IN THE GĨKŨYŨ LANGUAGE: A COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS APPROACH. The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics, 4, 20-41.

Hojati, A. (2012). A Study of Euphemisms in the Context of English-speaking Media. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(4), 552- 562. doi:10.5296/ijl.v4i4.2933

Kemasang, A. R. T. (1989). The confusion of food and sex in the West.

Probyn, E. (1999). Beyond Food/Sex: Eating and an Ethics of Existence. Theory Culture & Society, 16(2), 215-228.

DNCE Cake by the Ocean lyrics – Google Search. Retrieved 2 April 2018 from




“So are you lesbian, bisexual or straight?” “Yes”

“No, I’ve never felt the need to really (label my sexuality). No, I don’t feel like it’s something I have to explain about myself.”

“It’s weird for me. Everyone should just be who they want to be. It’s tough to justify somebody having to answer to someone else about stuff like that.”

Those are the answers given by Harry Styles, one of the members of One Direction boy band, when asked to label his sexuality. While he is right that no one should have to label their sexuality, it is also important to know that discrimination and bullying are still prevalent which put pressure on them to label themselves so that they would not feel out of place.

This article is written from the point of view of a person whom she said dated all kind of gender there are. Hence, she is a non-straight person and also, an LGBTQ advocate. However, she is reluctant and disagrees with putting a label on her sexuality status because she dated all kind of gender. This is because she stated that she agrees with Carrie Brownstein who hates the sexuality categories and never think of her sexuality as an identifier. Instead, she identifies herself by the types of relationships she has. She believes that no one is just one of the labels. Things may change depending who you show it to and you choose when they change. She felt like many people are more sexually fluid then they think they are. But people are just afraid of what that means if they do not define and categorize themselves as one of the labels. Hence, she is encouraging people to stop pressuring themselves in choosing a label for themselves.

Since language is used to think and thus during the process of classifying, linguistic labelling is required. Therefore, people think there is a need to create a label for a sexuality that is deviant from what is known as ‘normal’ and expects those who are deviant to categorize themselves appropriately.

In my opinion, true enough that having a label would serve them with a sense of belonging as well as a community that they can relate to. They can also finally able to educate the population with the different type of sexuality.

However, I would have to agree with this article. As mentioned in the article, she felt like many people are more sexually fluid than they think they are. Sexual fluidity which refers to that their sexual identity whether they are lesbian, gay, heterosexual, bisexual may change over time. It is not something that is fixed. Therefore, there should be no pressure and stress if one is not able to identify themselves. It is most certainly not necessary to identify yourself if you are not able to and that is alright. Having a label is considered as fixed and one cannot force themselves into a community they cannot relate to especially when they know that their sexual identity will change in time. The society will always be judgmental and even adopting a label would not be enough. There will be a need to show and conform to your sexuality. There is even certain “correct” behaviour imposed on gays, bisexuals, lesbians and transgender as well. Therefore, if one knows that he or she is not able to conform to these labels because of sexual fluidity then there is no rush or need to pick a side.

There is a lot of hatred circling around “people who are not the same” or basically homosexual. Therefore to resolve this, many think that they need to quickly put a label on themselves so that the hatred will not be severe as not having any labels. But, people will have to remember that not having a label is not the reason why they would hate you for. But it is about not fitting into the boxes or conforming to the assigned role is the large reason why people are hating on others. Therefore, it does not matter what linguistic labels are used, people are still going to hate because of the difference or deviance in sexual preferences. Bottom of the story, do not be scared and be proud of what you are. You do not owe anyone an explanation in regards to your sexuality. There is absolutely no need to pick a side and do not allow labels to define your sexuality when it is not really who you are.

A documentary was also made to explain and clear up about what sexual fluidity truly is.


McNamara, B. (2017). Harry Styles Says He’s Never Labeled His SexualityTeen Vogue. Retrieved 4 March 2018, from

Moore, L. (2015). Why I Won’t Label My SexualityCosmopolitan. Retrieved 4 March 2018, from

Cameron, D., & Kulick, D. (2010). Language and sexuality (pp. 25). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.