Research on BioSensor (1)

1. Article: What are Biosensors?

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-are-Biosensors.aspx

Biological sensor is made up of a transducer and a biological element that may be an enzyme, an antibody or a nucleic acid. The bioelement interacts with the analyte being tested and the biological response is converted into an electrical signal by the transducer. Depending on their particular application, biosensors are also known as immunosensors, optrodes, resonant mirrors, chemical canaries, biochips, glucometers and biocomputers.

A commonly cited definition of a biosensor is:

“A chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.”

Every biosensor comprises:

  • A biological component that acts as the sensor
  • An electronic component that detects and transmits the signal

2. Diagram from Rapid Detection of Food Adulterants and Contaminants: Theory and Practice By Shyam Narayan Jha

flow-of-biosensor

explanationofflow

 

3. Article: Application of Biosensors in the food industry.

http://www.news-medical.net/health/Biosensors-and-Food-Industry.aspx

  • Enzyme biosensors based on the inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes are used to detect traces of organophosphates and carbamates from pesticides that may be present as poisonous and harmful residues on farm produce.
  • Some microbial sensors are selective and sensitive in the detection of ammonia and methane.
  • Biological oxygen demand (BOD) analyzers use a bacteria such as Rhodococcus erythropolis immobilized in collagen or polyacrylamide. These devices are widely used to test the quality of waste water. BOD biosensors can analyze 2 to 20 samples every hour.
  • Biosensors may be used to measure carbohydrates, alcohols, and acids in fermented foods. The devices are mainly used for quality control processes in food production. The devices, however, need to be kept sterile, frequently calibrated and require analyte dilution. Enzyme-based biosensors can be used in food quality control to measure amino acids, amides, amines, carbohydrates, heterocyclic compounds, carboxylic acids, gases, inorganic ions, cofactors, alcohols and phenols. Biosensors can also be used in the assessment and analysis of produce such as wine, beer and yoghurt.
  • In food quality assessment, antibodies or immunosensors may be used in assays to detect small molecules such as water-soluble vitamins and chemical contaminants. They may also be used to detect any pathogenic organisms present in meat, poultry, eggs, and fish.

4. BOOK : Food Biosensors | edited by Minhaz Uddin Ahmed, Mohammed Zourob, Eiichi Tamiya

Terminology : Point of Care technologies (POC). For example, SciO is an optical POC technology. Electronic tongue for liquid sample and Electronic noses for gas.

2.3.2 Food Biosensing in Developing regions.

Use paper due to its low cost, high surface area, biocompatibility, flexibility, disposability, small volume of reagents required for analysis,

Colorimetric paper-based devices: Spot test (static) and lateral/vertical flow (dynamic)

kit

The possibility of creating hydrophilic patterns ( using wax printing,e.g) enables the fabrication of several test zones for different analytes in the same device, which increase the reliability of this tool

RFID biosensors : inductive-capacitive (LC) antenna circuit that reacts to an interrogative signal emitted by a detection coil and send back a resonant frequency signal dependent on the capacitances and inductance of the sensor

Biosensing systems are becoming more portable and user-friendly. In our opinion, this trend will continue, and smaller, less expensive devices able to perform multicomponent analysis will reach the market

5. Article: Novel Biosensors could detect food contaminants by Joe Withworth 

http://www.foodqualitynews.com/R-D/Printing-paper-based-biosensors-for-food-safety-use

6. Examples:

PREGNANCY TEST

GLUCOSE TEST

ORLA : Multi-channel SAW Biosensor for multiple diagnoses

There is a need for rapid, simple and low-cost point of care tests for respiratory viruses. Our technology enables SAW technology to be used to its full potential with biological samples and the resulting devices are able to detect disease antigens in samples from serum, urine, or saliva. The biochips translate antibody-antigen binding events from samples into an electronic signal, successfully combining rapid disease diagnosis with inbuilt wireless connectivity.

STRATOPHASE

Researchers from Stratophase, a firm out of Southampton, United Kingdom, just published a paper in journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics, describing the technology inside their SpectroSens chip, a new optical micro device designed to rapidly detect pathogens and biochemicals. The chip can be loaded into a robust device to simultaneously identify 16 different potential health threats like anthrax and ricin toxin.

INTEGRATED PRINTED BIOSENSOR PLATFORMS

There is a need for robust disposable sensor systems that are easy to use and manufacture. Application areas could be point of care, food safety, environmental monitoring and agriculture.

biosensor_acreo_2014

https://www.acreo.se/projects/integrated-printed-biosensor-platforms

Interview #4/5/6

Interview #4

Participant: Male, 24. Software Engineer.

  1. When is your most recently watched movie? Which movie?
    3 weeks ago.
  1. Do you have any cinema preference and why?
    Cathay, better popcorn. If I go with friends, I will go a place that is convenient for us all. If we have a lot of time then distance doesn’t matter.
  2. What are the factors that you think are important for a cinema?

Food, I prefer places where I have more choices of popcorn. Also, I prefer big movie screen size. Places with appropriate volume setting. I don’t like places where it is too loud.

  1. What do you usually do after watching a movie?
    Movie is usually my last activity for the day. I will usually discuss the movie with friends on the way back.
  2. Do you stay back for after credits?
    Only for movies I expect to have after credits. I roughly know big franchises like Marvel, Pixar, etc. are most likely to have after credits.
  3. How do you feel (emotionally and physically) after watching a movie?

    It largely depends on the movie. I have headache if the movies are complicated. If fantasy/scifi I feel a bit floating. Action movies may cause higher heart rate. Most likely I need to go to the toilet after a movie cos I usually drink during a movie.

Sometimes I will imagine myself in the movie world.

  1. How do you feel about the exit hall post movie?
    I think it is long and hot, uncomfortable. Most exit involve stairs. It takes very long to find the toilet and toilet always have a long Queue. At the end of the exit I usually don’t know where I am, especially if the shopping mall is new to me.

I prefer movie theatre with the exit directing back to the lobby (cos toilet is always available)

  1. Have you ever gotten into a situation that you have to catch last Public transport after a movie? How did you feel about it?
    The last time I watched a late night movie, before buying tickets I had already known I would miss the last bus and had to walk home so it was ok. I did not really rush or anything. Did not feel anxious at all.

Because all the mall entrances were closed, I could not find any toilet and that was stressful HAHAHHA

  1. If you can change something about the exit hall, what would you like to change?
    Make it shorter and maybe darker. Cos I feel it is glaring. Maybe can have aircon to make it cooler. I don’t find the current exit boring because I don’t really pay attention to it. I usually will still think about the movie.
  2. What do you usually do in the exit hall?
    Think about the movie. Check for time on my phone but don’t really use it. Discuss with my friends about the movie. Follow the people in front. If there is no one I think it is still intuitive because there is only one way to go.
  3. How do you feel about the following ideas to improve the exit hall?
    1. Navigation to be displayed on walls
      I think navigation is already there. It is one way so you rarely go wrong.
    2. After credits / new movie trailers screened on walls
      I do not think this is a good idea. I feel like it will disturb my after-movie thoughts. If this idea is installed, I prefer it to let me know more about the characters or movie world.
    3. Simple rating system for viewers to express their feeling about the movie
      I care about whether this system is biased. If somehow u can make this fair then I think there is a point.

Interview #5

Participant: Female, 24. Research assistant.

  1. When is your most recently watched movie? Which movie?
    Sausage Party. 2 weeks ago.
  2. Do you have any cinema preference and why?
    I will choose a cinema that is closer to my home.
  3. What are the factors that you think are important for a cinema?

I don’t care. My friends select the movie cinema. I only care about the distance. If it’s too far I will not go. I will prefer seats that are not too close to the screen.

  1. What do you usually do after watching a movie?
    Supper or go home straight. Generally movie is my last activity.
  2. Do you stay back for after credits?
    Unless my friends insist to stay back. The only time I stayed back there wasn’t any after credits so I kind of feel disappointed.
  3. How do you feel (emotionally and physically) after watching a movie?

    It largely depends on the movie. Most of the time I feel relaxed and chill. I usually go for romance and animation. I feel like my legs don’t belong anywhere. It feels uncomfortable. I have to place my feet somewhere. I feel that some movie theatres are cold.

Sometimes I have an after-movie feeling, depending on the movies. Like if the movie is controversial I will think about the ending…etc.

  1. How do you feel about the exit hall post movie?
    I feel indifferent. I think it’s boring. I mostly go to GV which uses fire exit as the cinema exit. But nothing to complain about. I don’t really care about the exit.

From a service point, I feel like the cinema abandons the customers cos they do not care about the exit. I feel like its “ impolite”

  1. Have you ever gotten into a situation that you have to catch last Public transport after a movie? How did you feel about it?
    I knew it beforehand so I was prepared to rush for it. After the exit, I need to navigate and then ran for the transport. But I don’t really care if I can catch it, it’s not a crucial thing. Normally I would avoid late night movies.
  2. If you can change something about the exit hall, what would you like to change?
    Make it shorter and I don’t want to take the stairs. Can put more movie posters or decoration. But I don’t expect much from a movie exit anyway.
  3. What do you usually do in the exit hall?
    Discuss with friends about the movie. Don’t use phone. Follow people in front to exit. But sometimes people in front also don’t know where to go
  4. How do you feel about the following ideas to improve the exit hall?
    1. Navigation to be displayed on walls
      Unnecessary cos I think the exit is one way. Some signages are already there.
    2. After credits / new movie trailers screened on walls
      Ok. I prefer trailers, don’t really want see more about the movie (I think whatever about the movie should be screened in the movie hall already). Exit hall is hot so I don’t want spend time there.
    3. Simple rating system for viewers to express their feeling about the movie
      I think I would like this idea if the rating is used for new movie comers because otherwise there is no purpose to it.

      Interview #6

      Participant: Female, 23. Software engineer.

  1. When is your most recently watched movie? Which movie?
    3 weeks ago.
  2. Do you have any cinema preference and why?
    Nice chair cushion. Comfortable seat. Fit my size. Air con is just nice.
  3. What are the factors that you think are important for a good cinema experience?

Staff shouldn’t disturb when credits is screened. Popcorn/drink should be nice. No issue with screen size. I think GV seats are a bit low so I have to raise my head which is tiring for my neck. Cathay front row are very closed to the screen.

  1. What do you usually do after watching a movie?
    Go for a walk and think about the movie
  2. Do you stay back for after credits?
    Yes, always. I feel like it is a way to appreciate the production team. So I feel disturbed and a bit angry when the staff tries to clear the hall when the credits is still screening.
  3. How do you feel (emotionally and physically) after watching a movie?

    Deeply in thoughts. I usually watch movies that give new ideas / creative ideas. I will think about the movie a lot if the movie is good. Not really about the character.

I feel full after movie cos I drink a lot of soft drink. I usually hold something (popcorn) to help with my concentration.

I usually watch movies alone so I don’t have to care about others.

I don’t really feel tired after the movie. I feel relaxed.

  1. How do you feel about the exit hall post movie?
    I think it is a great setting for a horror movie (LAUGH). It is quite dark, long and no one really knows where they are heading and how long it is. I usually go to Cathay who paints the exit hall black (white for cathay) The hall is narrow and long, a bit maze- I usually just think where I am going.

There’s no other way so I will just go and suppose that’s the right way. Most of the time I feel a bit lost because some signage is confusing and not at my eye level.

  1. Have you ever gotten into a situation that you have to catch last Public transport after a movie? How did you feel about it?
    When I was a student, I rushed for the train because I don’t have much money to catch cab. But now I either choose a really late night and take cab or go for early one. Sometime if I watch at The Cathay (Dhoby Gaught) I will walk home and enjoy the night walk along Orchard road (1hr)
  2. If you can change something about the exit hall, what would you like to change?
    Make it less scary. Make it more cheerful/positive. Cos you go for a movie to chill and relax then suddenly you enter this scary corridor.
  3. What do you usually do in the exit hall?
    I think about the end of the exit. I actually like the idea of some scary thing that surprises me at the end. Sometime I see the upcoming movie posters. But I think they are really far away in time ( 3-6months later) so I think it is quite pointless.
  4. How do you feel about the following ideas to improve the exit hall?
  5. Navigation to be displayed on walls
    I think I need to by eye levelled. I think it should be pictorial / illustrative. Some imagery suggestion of where we are ending up at.
  6. After credits / new movie trailers screened on walls
    No need. I watch after credits in the cinema hall and movie trailers at MRT stations.
  7. Simple rating system for viewers to express their feeling about the movie

I think this is ok. When I use a rating system I will prefer some privacy. I think if its crowded. I think it is better if it is done by an app. Maybe some location-based trigger can be installed so it asks me to rate after the movie. I think some rewards need to be there for people to rate, like membership rewards.