Inter-related Words

Infographic on Words
Infographic on Words

This is an infographic done in class, about the 50 words about myself and how they are inter-related. I might not use these words eventually and head into a direction that is more FYP centric.



1. Resilience noun1.     1.the ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape; elasticity.

“nylon is excellent in wearability, abrasion resistance and resilience”

synonyms: flexibilitypliability, suppleness, plasticityelasticity, springiness,springgive;


3.     2.

the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness.

“the often remarkable resilience of so many British institutions”

2. Brave adjective1.     1.ready to face and endure danger or pain; showing courage.

“she was very brave about the whole thing”

synonyms: courageouspluckyfearlessvaliant, valorous, intrepidheroic,lionheartedmanfulmachobolddaringdaredeviladventurous,audaciousdeath-or-glory;



1.     1.

endure or face (unpleasant conditions or behaviour) without showing fear.

“he pulled on his coat ready to brave the elements”

synonyms: endure, put up with, bearwithstandweathersuffersustain, go through;
3. Ruminative 1.     1.think deeply about something.”we sat ruminating on the nature of existence”

synonyms: think about, contemplateconsider, give thought to, give consideration to, mull over, meditate on, muse on, ponder on/over, deliberate about/on, cogitate about/on, dwell on, brood on/over, agonize over,worry about, chew over, puzzle over; More

2.     2.

(of a ruminant) chew the cud.

“goats ruminated nonchalantly around them”

synonyms: chew the cud”cows emit more methane when they are ruminating”
4. Ephemeral adjective1.     1.lasting for a very short time.

“fashions are ephemeral: new ones regularly drive out the old”

synonyms: transitorytransientfleetingpassingshort-livedmomentarybrief,shortcursorytemporaryimpermanentshort-term;


1.     1.

an ephemeral plant.

“ephemerals avoid the periods of drought as seeds”

5. Reliance Noundependence on or trust in someone or something.”the farmer’s reliance on pesticides”

synonyms: dependencedependency; More



a person or thing on which someone depends.

plural noun: reliances

6. Struggle verb1.     1.make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or constriction.

“before she could struggle, he lifted her up”

synonyms: fightgrapplewrestlescufflebrawlspar, exchange blows, come to blows;



1.     1.

a forceful or violent effort to get free of restraint or resist attack.

“there were signs of a struggle and there was a lot of blood around”

synonyms: fightscufflebrawltussle, wrestling match, sparring match, wrestling bout, boutskirmishfracasmeleeaffrayencounterdisturbance,breach of the peace;
7. Inquisitive adjective1.     having or showing an interest in learning things; curious.”his poems reveal an intensely inquisitive mind”


unduly curious about the affairs of others; prying.

“I didn’t like to seem inquisitive”

synonyms: curious, intrigued, interested, burning with curiosity, agog;
8. Fascinated verbpast tense: fascinated; past participle: fascinated1.     attract the strong attention and interest of (someone).

“I’ve always been fascinated by computers”

synonyms: engrosscaptivateabsorbinterestenchantbeguilebewitchenthral,enraptureentrance, hold spellbound, transfixrivetmesmerize,hypnotizespellbindoccupyengagecompel; More


(especially of a snake) deprive (prey) of the ability to resist or escape by the power of a gaze.

“the serpent fascinates its prey”

9. Outrageous adjective1.     1.shockingly bad or excessive.

“an outrageous act of bribery”

synonyms: shockingdisgracefulscandalousatrociousappallingabhorrent,monstrousheinous; More

2.     2.

very bold and unusual and rather shocking.

“her outrageous leotards and sexy routines”

synonyms: eye-catchingstartlingstrikingflamboyantshowyflashygaudy,ostentatiousdazzling;
10. Childlike adjectiveadjective: child-like1.     (of an adult) having the good qualities, such as innocence, associated with a child.

“she speaks with a childlike directness”

synonyms: innocentartlessguilelesssimpleunworldlyunsophisticatedgreen,inexperiencednaiveingenuoustrustingtrustfulunsuspiciousunwary,unguardedcredulousgullible, easily taken in;
11. Clumsy adjective1.     awkward in movement or in handling things.”the cold made his fingers clumsy”

synonyms: awkwarduncoordinatedungainlygracelessungracefulinelegant,gawkygaucheganglingcloddish, blundering, lumbering;

done awkwardly or without skill.

“a very clumsy attempt to park”

synonyms: awkwarduncoordinatedungainlygracelessungracefulinelegant,gawkygaucheganglingcloddish, blundering, lumbering;

difficult to handle or use; unwieldy.

“clumsy devices”

synonyms: unwieldyunmanageablecumbersomebulkyhulkingheavysolid,awkward, unmanoeuvrable”a clumsy contraption”
12. Musical/Rhythmic adjective1.     1.relating to music.

“they shared similar musical tastes”



2.     2.

having a pleasant sound; melodious or tuneful.

“they burst out into rich, musical laughter”

synonyms: tunefulmelodicmelodiousharmonioussweet-soundingsweet,mellifluousdulcetlyrical, lilting, liquideuphonious, euphonic;raremellifluent


1.     1.

a play or film in which singing and dancing play an essential part. Musicals developed from light opera in the early 20th century.

“a hit West End musical, Miss Saigon”

synonyms: musical comedy
13. Pensive adjective1.     engaged in, involving, or reflecting deep or serious thought.”a pensive mood”

synonyms: thoughtfulthinkingreflectivecontemplativemusingmeditative,introspectiveprayerfulphilosophical, cogitative, ruminative, absorbed,engrossed, rapt, preoccupied, deep/immersed/lost in thought, in a brown study, broodyseriousstudioussolemndreamy, dreaming;
14. Philosophical adjective1.     1.relating or devoted to the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence.

“philosophical discussions about free will”

synonyms: theoreticalanalyticalrationalmetaphysicallogicalreasoned,esotericscholarlyerudite“a philosophical question”

2.     2.

having or showing a calm attitude towards disappointments or difficulties.

“he was philosophical about losing the contract”

synonyms: calmcomposedcoolcollected, {cool, calm, and collected}, self-possessedserenetranquilplacidstoicalimpassivesober,dispassionatedetachedunemotionalphlegmaticunperturbed,imperturbableequableunruffledpatientforbearinglong-suffering,tolerantaccommodatingindulgenteasy-goingeven-tempered,restrained, fatalistic, unexcitableresignedrationallogicalrealistic,practical;informalunflappable“training officers have learnt to be philosophical about such mishaps”
15. Poetic adjective1.     relating to or used in poetry.”the muse is a poetic convention”

synonyms: in verse, versemetrical, rhythmical;

written in verse rather than prose.

“a poetic drama”


having an imaginative or sensitively emotional style of expression.

“the orchestral playing was colourful and poetic”

synonyms: expressivefigurativesymbolicflowerymovingaestheticartistic,tastefulgracefulelegantelevatedfinebeautiful;
16. Thoughtful adjective1.     1.absorbed in or involving thought.

“brows drawn together in thoughtful consideration”

synonyms: pensivethinkingreflectivecontemplativemusingmeditative,introspectiveprayerfulphilosophical, cogitative, ruminative,absorbed, engrossed, rapt, preoccupied, deep/immersed/lost in thought, in a brown study, broodingbroodyseriousstudious,solemndreamy, dreaming, wistfulmelancholysad; More

2.     2.

showing consideration for the needs of other people.

“he was attentive and thoughtful”

synonyms: considerateattentivecaringunderstandingsympatheticsolicitous,concernedhelpfulfriendlyobligingaccommodatingneighbourly,unselfishkindkindlycompassionatetendercharitablebenevolent“how very thoughtful of you!”
17. Sensitive adjective1.     1.quick to detect or respond to slight changes, signals, or influences.

“the new method of protein detection was more sensitive than earlier ones”

synonyms: responsive to, quick to respond to, sensitized to, reactive to, sentient of


2.     2.

having or displaying a quick and delicate appreciation of others’ feelings.

“I pay tribute to the Minister for his sensitive handling of the bill”

synonyms: tactfulcarefulthoughtfuldiplomaticdelicatesubtle, finely tuned,kid-glove



1.     1.

a person who is believed to respond to paranormal influences.


18. Playful adjective1.     fond of games and amusement; light-hearted.”a playful tomboy who loves to dress up”

synonyms: friskyjollyfun-lovinglively, full of fun, high-spirited, spirited, in high spirits, exuberantperkyskittishcoltishkittenish;


intended for one’s own or others’ amusement rather than seriously.

“he gave me a playful punch on the arm”


giving or expressing pleasure and amusement.

“the ballet accents the playful use of movement”

19. Patient adjective1. to accept or tolerate delays, problems, or suffering without becoming annoyed or anxious.

“be patient, your time will come”

synonyms: forbearinguncomplainingtolerantlong-sufferingresignedstoical;More



1.     1.

a person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment.

“many patients in the hospital were more ill than she was”

synonyms: sick person, case, sufferer, victim; More


3.     2.


the semantic role of a noun phrase denoting something that is affected or acted upon by the action of a verb.

20. Keen adjective1.     1.BRITISH

having or showing eagerness or enthusiasm.

“a keen gardener”

synonyms: eageranxiousimpatientdetermineddesirouslonging, wishing,itching, dyingyearningambitiousready; More

2.     2.

sharp or penetrating, in particular:

21. Understanding noun1.     1.the ability to understand something; comprehension.

“foreign visitors with little understanding of English”

synonyms: comprehensionapprehensiongraspgripmasteryperception,discernmentappreciationinterpretationcognizanceken,conceptiondigestion, assimilation, absorption; More

2.     2.

sympathetic awareness or tolerance.

“he wrote with understanding and affection of the people of Dent”

synonyms: compassionsympathypityempathyfeelingconcern,considerateness, considerationtenderness, tender-heartedness,kindness, kind-heartedness, sensitivityinsightfellow feeling,brotherly love, neighbourliness, decencyhumanity, humanitarianism,humaneness, charitygoodwillmercy, mercifulness, gentleness,tolerance, lenience, leniencywarmth, warm-heartedness, affection,love“he always treated me with great kindness and understanding”


1.     1.adjective

sympathetically aware of other people’s feelings; tolerant and forgiving.

“a kind and understanding man”

synonyms: compassionatesympatheticsensitiveconsideratetenderkind,kindlykind-heartedthoughtfultolerantpatientforbearinglenient,mercifulforgivinghumanehumangood-naturedapproachable,supportive, reassuring; More

2.     2.


having insight or good judgement.

22. Confused adjective1.     1.(of a person) unable to think clearly; bewildered.

“she was utterly confused about what had happened”

synonyms: dementedbewilderedmuddledaddled, befuddled, disoriented,disorientated, (all) at sea, unbalancedunhingedsenile, with Alzheimer’s disease More


2.     2.

lacking order and so difficult to understand.

“the confused information supplied by authorities”

synonyms: chaoticmuddled, jumbled, unclearuntidy, disordered, disorderly,disarranged, out of order, disorganizedupsettopsy-turvy, at sixes and sevens;informalhiggledy-piggledy“the first confused reports of the massacre”
23. Passionate adjective1.     having, showing, or caused by strong feelings or beliefs.”passionate pleas for help”

synonyms: intenseimpassionedardentferventzealousvehementfieryheated,feverishemotionalheartfelteagerexcitedanimatedspiritedvigorous,strongenergeticmessianicfanaticalfrenziedwildfierceconsuming,violenttumultuousflamingragingburninguncontrollable,ungovernable; More

arising from intense feelings of sexual love.

“a passionate kiss”

synonyms: amorousardenthot-bloodedred-bloodedwarm-blooded, aroused,loving, on fire, sexysensualeroticlustfulsultrytorrid;
24. Diligent adjective1.     having or showing care and conscientiousness in one’s work or duties.”after diligent searching, he found a parcel”

synonyms: industrioushard-workingassiduous;
25. Dramatic adjective1.     1.relating to drama or the performance or study of drama.

“the dramatic arts”


3.     2.

(of an event or circumstance) sudden and striking.

“a dramatic increase in recorded crime”

synonyms: considerablesubstantialsizeablegoodlyfairreasonabletidy,markedpronounced;
26. Emotional adjective1.     relating to a person’s emotions.”gaining emotional support from relatives”

synonyms: spiritualinnerpsychicpsychological, of the heart”their emotional needs are often ignored”

arousing or characterized by intense feeling.

“an emotional speech”

synonyms: poignantmovingtouchingaffectingpowerfulstirringemotiveheart-rendingheartbreakingheart-warmingsoul-stirringuplifting,impassioneddramatic;

(of a person) having feelings that are easily excited and openly displayed.

“he was a strongly emotional young man”

synonyms: passionatefeelinghot-bloodedwarmardentferventexcitable,temperamentalmelodramatictempestuous, overcharged, responsive;
27. Chaotic adjective1.     in a state of complete confusion and disorder.”the political situation was chaotic”

synonyms: disorderly, disordered, in disorder, in chaos, in disarray, disorganized,topsy-turvyhaywireconfused, in pandemonium, in turmoil, tumultuous,disrupted;


relating to systems which exhibit chaos.


28. Enthusiastic adjective1.     having or showing intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval.”he could be wildly enthusiastic about a project”

synonyms: eagerkeenavidardentferventwarmpassionatezealouslively,vivaciousenergeticvigorousdynamicvehementfieryexcited,exuberantebullientspiritedheartywholeheartedcommittedwilling,readydevotedfanaticalearnest“an enthusiastic supporter of Scottish rugby”
29. Funny adjective1.     1.causing laughter or amusement; humorous.

“a funny story”

synonyms: amusinghumorouscomiccomicaldrolllaughablechucklesome;

2.     2.

difficult to explain or understand; strange or curious.

“I had a funny feeling you’d be around”



1.     1.


amusing jokes.

“the training courses usually produced a good crop of funnies”


30. Hesitant adjective1.     tentative, unsure, or slow in acting or speaking.”clients are hesitant about buying”

synonyms: uncertainundecidedunsuredoubtful, in doubt, dubioustentativehalf-heartedambivalentscepticalreluctantnervous, having misgivings,having qualms, hanging back, stalling, delaying;
31. Lonely adjective1.     1.sad because one has no friends or company.

“lonely old people whose families do not care for them”

synonyms: isolatedalone, all alone, friendless, companionless, without friends/companions, with no one to turn to, outcastforsaken,abandoned, rejected, unlovedunwanted;

2.     2.

(of a place) unfrequented and remote.

“a lonely country lane”

synonyms: deserteduninhabitedunfrequentedunpopulateddesolatebarren,isolatedremote, out of the way, secludedsequestered, off the beaten track, in the back of beyond, in the middle of nowhere,godforsaken;literarylone“a lonely road”
32. Pain noun1.     1.highly unpleasant physical sensation caused by illness or injury.

“she’s in great pain

synonyms: sufferingagonyafflictiontorturetormentdiscomfort, sorenessMore

2.     2.

mental suffering or distress.

“the pain of loss”

synonyms: sorrowgriefheartacheheartbreaksadnessunhappinessdistress,desolationmisery, wretchedness, despairdesperation, mental suffering, emotional suffering, trauma; More


1.     1.

cause mental or physical pain to.

“it pains me to say this”

synonyms: hurt, cause pain, be painful, be sore, achethrobsmartburnprickle,stingpinchtwinge, cause discomfort, be tender;
33. Abused verbpast tense: abused; past participle: abused1.     1.

use (something) to bad effect or for a bad purpose; misuse.

“the judge abused his power by imposing the fines”

synonyms: misusemisapplymisemploymishandle; More


2.     2.

treat with cruelty or violence, especially regularly or repeatedly.

“riders who abuse their horses should be prosecuted”

synonyms: mistreatmaltreatill-treat, treat badly, ill-usemisuse;
34. Kind noun1.     1.a group of people or things having similar characteristics.

“all kinds of music”

synonyms: sorttypevarietystyleformclasscategorygenre; More

2.     2.

each of the elements (bread and wine) of the Eucharist.

“communion in both kinds

35. Empathy noun1.     the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
36. Soulful adjective1.     expressing or appearing to express deep and often sorrowful feeling.”she gave him a soulful glance”

synonyms: emotionaldeep, deeply felt, profoundferventheartfeltsincere,passionate;
37. Weak adjective1.     1.lacking the power to perform physically demanding tasks; having little physical strength or energy.

“she was recovering from flu, and was very weak”

synonyms: frailfeeblepunyfragiledelicateweakly;

2.     2.

liable to break or give way under pressure; easily damaged.

“the salamander’s tail may be broken off at a weak spot near the base”

38. Strong adjective1.     1.having the power to move heavy weights or perform other physically demanding tasks.

“she cut through the water with her strong arms”

synonyms: powerfulmuscularbrawnywell built, powerfully built, strapping,sturdyheftyburlymeatyrobustfitathleticvigoroustough,rugged; More

2.     2.

able to withstand force, pressure, or wear.

“cotton is strong, hard-wearing, and easy to handle”

synonyms: securewell builtindestructible, well fortified, well defended, well protected, impregnableimpenetrableinviolableunassailable;
39. Unstable/Volatile/Fragile adjective1.     likely to give way; not stable.”the unstable cliff tops”

synonyms: unsteadyrockywobbly, wobbling, ricketyshaky, tottery, tottering,teetering, dodderyunsafeunbalancedunreliableinsecure, not secure,unfastened, unsecuredmovableprecarious;bockety“icebergs are notoriously unstable and may flip over”

likely to change or fail; not firmly established.

“an unstable government”

synonyms: changeablevolatilevariableunsettled, fluctuating, inconstant,inconsistentirregularfitfulunpredictableunreliableficklecapricious,mercurialerraticuncertain, wavering”the country suffered from unstable coffee prices”

prone to psychiatric problems or sudden changes of mood.

“he was mentally unstable”

synonyms: unbalanced, of unsound mind, mentally ill, derangeddemented,crazed, distractedtroubleddisturbedunhingedinsanemad, mad as a hatter, mad as a March hare, raving mad, lunatic, out of one’s mind/head, not in one’s right mind, neuroticpsychotic;
40. Broken adjective1.     1.having been broken.

“he had a broken arm”

synonyms: smashedshatteredburst, fragmented, splintered, shivered, crushed,snapped, renttorn, ruptured, separated, severed, in bits, in pieces;

2.     2.

(of a person) having given up all hope; despairing.

“he went to his grave a broken man”

synonyms: defeatedbeaten, vanquished, overpowered, overwhelmed, subdued;
41. Sincere adjective1.     free from pretence or deceit; proceeding from genuine feelings.”they offer their sincere thanks to Paul”

synonyms: heartfeltwholeheartedprofounddeep, from the heart;


(of a person) saying what they genuinely feel or believe; not dishonest or hypocritical.

“she’d sounded sincere enough”

42. Loyal/Committed adjective1.     giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution.”he remained loyal to the government”

synonyms: faithfultruetrue-hearted, tried and true, true-bluedevoted;
43. Irrational adjective1.     1.not logical or reasonable.

“irrational feelings of hostility”

synonyms: unreasonableillogicalgroundlessbaselessunfoundedunjustifiable,unsound;

2.     2.


(of a number, quantity, or expression) not expressible as a ratio of two integers, and having an infinite and non-recurring expansion when expressed as a decimal. Examples of irrational numbers are the number π and the square root of 2.




1.     1.

an irrational number or quantity; a surd.

44. Distraught adjective1.     very worried and upset.”a distraught woman sobbed and screamed for help”

synonyms: worriedupsetdistressedfraught, devastated, shattered;
45. Responsible adjective1.     1.having an obligation to do something, or having control over or care for someone, as part of one’s job or role.

“the cabinet minister responsible for Education”

synonyms: in charge of, in control of, at the helm of, accountable for, liable for,charged with; More

2.     2.

being the primary cause of something and so able to be blamed or credited for it.

“Gooch was responsible for 198 of his side’s 542 runs”

synonyms: accountableanswerable, to blame;
46. Depressed depresseddɪˈprɛst/adjective

1.     1.

(of a person) in a state of unhappiness or despondency.

“she felt lonely and depressed”

synonyms: sad, saddened, unhappygloomyglummelancholymiserable,sorrowfuldejecteddisconsolatedownhearteddowncast, cast down,downcrestfallenwoebegonedespondentdispiritedlow, low in spirits, low-spiritedheavy-heartedmorosedismaldesolate, weighed down, oppressed;


2.     2.

(of a place or economic activity) suffering the damaging effects of a lack of demand or employment.

“depressed inner-city areas”

synonyms: weak, weakened, enervated, debilitated, devitalized, impaired;
47. Unsatisfied adjective1.     not satisfied.”the compromise left all sides unsatisfied”
48. Stoic/Numb noun1.     1.a person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.


3.     2.

a member of the ancient philosophical school of Stoicism.



1.     1.

another term for stoical.

“a look of stoic resignation”


3.     2.

of or belonging to the Stoics or their school of philosophy.

“the Stoic philosophers”


49. Sentimental adjective1.     of or prompted by feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia.”she felt a sentimental attachment to the place creep over her”

synonyms: nostalgictenderemotionaldewy-eyedmisty-eyedaffectionateloving

having or arousing feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia, typically in an exaggerated and self-indulgent way.

“a sentimental ballad”

synonyms: mawkishover-sentimentaloveremotional, cloying, sicklysaccharine,sugary, sugar-coated, syrupy;
50. Nostalgic noun1.     a sentimental longing or wistful affection for a period in the past.”I was overcome with acute nostalgia for my days at university”

synonyms: wistfulness, longing/yearning/pining for the past, regret, regretfulness,reminiscenceremembrancerecollection, homesickness, sentimentality“there is a nostalgia for traditional values”


something done or presented in order to evoke feelings of nostalgia.

“an evening of TV nostalgia”

Creation Myth – Chinese Mythology

Pan Gu Chinese Creation Myth

The Chinese myth of the creator Pan Gu can be traced back to around 600 B.C. The legend says the universe was a formless chaos. This chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg for about 18,000 years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of Yin and Yang became balanced. Inside the egg, at first was “a mass called no thing”. Pan Gu was the being that was to develop from the egg. Pan Gu emerged and become the creator. “Pan Gu was the size of a giant. He grew ten feet a day and lived for eighteen thousand years”. With his chisel, Pan Gu shaped the entire earth. Yin became the earth and yang the sky. To this day the concept of yin and yang represents all types of balance within our universe, and stresses the need for balance in all aspects of life.

Pan Gu acted as the ultimate architect, carving out all of earth and adorning the heavens with the moon and stars. Only when Pan Gu died could the process be complete. When his death came, his body and soul all became parts of the earth. From his head were created the Sun and the Moon, from his blood the rivers and seas, from his breath the wind, and from his voice the thunder. Finally, human beings were generated from the fleas which lived on him.

Some versions of the Pan Gu creation myth state that the giant had help from four mythical beasts. First, the turtle: the Chinese were not the only ones to use it in their creation myth; various world myths, creation and otherwise, include the turtle for its strength and immortality. The qilin, though indigenous to Asian mythology, is said to have been dragon-like. While being central to Asian mythology – dragons are also found world-wide – as bearers of wisdom and a symbol of power, also connected to the succession of the early emperors. Finally, the phoenix which has consistently been a symbol of rebirth.

The interesting aspects of this tale are its similarities to other myths. For example, the cosmic egg is a common concept that is indicative of the universe before the Big Bang occurred, scientifically speaking. While this may, at first glance, be a very primitive way of describing such an event, one cannot help but notice how very insightful it is.



Greek Myths about Time

The ancient Greeks had two words for time. The first was chronos, which we still use in words like chronological and anachronism. It refers to clock time – time that can be measured – seconds, minutes, hours, years.

Kronos (Roman – Saturnus) the God who devoured his own children (Poseidon representing the sea, Demeter the earth, Hera the air, and Hestia heavenly fire) symbolised the destructive ravages of time, which consumed all. As the King of the Golden Age, and of the Islands of the Blessed, he represented the passing of the ages.

Kronos is depicted as a weary, bent-backed old man with a long grey beard, carrying a scythe and an hourglass. His resemblance to the Grim Reaper is not accidental. Chronos, or Saturn to the Romans, is the being that kills you. It takes away everything you have and then it eats you too. Much like time, which consumes everything.

Saturn Devouring His Son – Franscico Goya


Where chronos is quantitative, kairos is qualitative. It measures moments, not seconds. Further, it refers to the right moment, the opportune moment. The perfect moment. The world takes a breath, and in the pause before it exhales, fates can be changed. Kairos, even though the Greek meanings are complex and culturally dependent, refers to the right time, opportune time or seasonable time. It cannot be measured. It is the perfect time, the qualitative time, the perfect moment, the “now.”

Kairos is the right moment of opportunity which requires proactivity to achieve success. It is significant and decisive. These moments transcend kronos, stirring emotions and realities to cause decisive action. It is not an understatement to say that kairos moments alter destiny. To miscalculate kronos is inconvenient. To miscalculate kairos is lamentable.



Kairos, is depicted as a young man, lithe and handsome. Statues of him could be found all across the Greek peninsula. Under the statue is carved the following epigram:

And who are you? Time who subdues all things.
Why do you stand on tip-toe? I am ever running.
And why do you have a pair of wings on your feet? I fly with the wind.
And why do you hold a razor in your right hand? As a sign to men that I am sharper than any sharp edge.
And why does your hair hang over your face? For him who meets me to take me by the forelock.
And why, in Heaven’s name, is the back of your head bald? Because none whom I have once raced by on my winged feet will now, though he wishes it sore, take hold of me from behind.
Why did the artist fashion you? For your sake, stranger, and he set me up in the porch as a lesson.

The wings on his feet, suggest his swiftness, borne by the seasons, he goes rolling on through all eternity. His youthful beauty, that beauty is always opportune and Kairos (Opportunity) is the only artificer of beauty, whereas things whose beauty has withered have no part in the nature of Kairos (Opportunity). The lock of hair on his forehead indicates that while he is easy to catch as he approaches, yet, when he has passed by, the moment of action has likewise expired, and that, if opportunity (kairos) is neglected, it cannot be recovered.

The Ancient Greeks, the seedbed of existential thinkers, sought to understand kairos at multiple levels. They applied kairos thinking in arenas of legal, political, and epideitic (the artfully skilled and heightened rhetorical expression of praise). In legal rhetoric, kairos was related to justice beyond the written law, that is, law applied at specific times and circumstances unforeseen by legislators. Political rhetoric concerns the elements of usefulness, suitability, and honor. Kairos was also central to the Sophists, who saw kairos as the ability to understand the subtleties of a rhetorical situation. Kairos is seen as the orator’s ability to adapt to and take advantage of the contingent circumstances.

The New Testament writers reflect the evolution of the word by referring to kairos time as the present moment, the defining moment, and even the God-ordained moments. Kairos is the time-frame for divine interaction and occurrences.

Ancient Indians had the same divided notions of time: chronological and kairotic. And like the Greeks, they mistrusted Chronos. The Sanskrit equivalent of chronos is kala, from which the destructive goddess Kali takes her name.The image of her dancing on corpses with a belt of skulls and severed hands reminds one of the destructive nature of time.


Cultures Without The Concept Of Time

Cultures without Time

The Piraha Tribe
The Piraha Tribe of
the Amazon Rainforest

The Pirahã Tribe: This small native tribe of the Amazon rainforest has an extremely limited language of humming and whistling (Davies). They use no numbers, letters, or art; and—more importantly—no concept of time. Specialists such as linguist Dan Everett have traveled to the isolated Pirahã villages of Brazil in order to attempt to teach the tribe how to read and write (Davies). Their attempts have generally been unsuccessful. To even consider introducing the concept of time to this tribe would be foolish, as their concept of numbers is non existent. They have no specific religious beliefs—no reverence to ancestors or heroes of the past.
There is no past tense…because everything exists for them in the present. When it can no longer be perceived, it ceases, to all intents, to exist… The linguistic limitations of this “carpe diem” culture explain why the Pirahã have no desire to remember where they come from and why they tell no stories. (Davies) So, although it may be difficult for many people in time-dependent cultures to understand the ways of the Pirahã tribe, there is an important lesson in their relaxed lifestyle—encouraging people to live every moment for what it’s worth.

The Hopi Tribe: The Hopi Indian tribe is known for their interesting language: due to its lack of verb tenses and resulting omission of any conception of time. The closest that the Hopi language comes to a sense of time are two words in the entire language: one meaning “sooner” and another meaning “later” (Le Lionnais). The Hopi tribes live, for the most part, in northeast Arizona. They make their homes atop flattened sections of hills called Mesas, in villages called “pueblos” (“Hopi Indians”). The Hopi Indians are also well known for being a very peaceful tribe.
Cultures with Unique Views on Time

Nomadic Tribes of Afghanistan
Nomadic Tribes of Afghanistan

Nomadic Tribes of Afghanistan and Iran: These peoples of nomadic tribes do not feel tied down by time in any other for than the seasons. In the spring, they migrate from the valleys to the mountains, where they will find richer and more abundant grasslands for their animals (Goudsmit and Claiborne 21). When the warm days of summer have passed, the nomads head back to the valleys from which they came in spring. Often this is a fairly long journey. This cycle continues throughout their entire lives.

Asian Buddhist Culture: Although the system of months that so many people live by today is a lunar concept, the strictly lunar aspect is sometimes given little thought. Buddhists have a stricter lunar calendar, because the moon has always been to them “…an object of wonder and veneration” (Goudsmit and Claiborne 23). Buddhist monks meet for prayer twice in one lunar month, at the beginning and end of the lunar cycle. The Buddhist calendar consists of 12 months. Throughout the year, the days in each month alternate from 29 to 30 (“Buddhist Calendar”)—making each month shorter, on average, than the months that many other modern societies are used to.


Creation – Hindu Cosmology

How the universe was created – Hindu cosmology

“In the beginning there was neither existence nor non- existence; there was no atmosphere, no sky, and no realm beyond the sky. What power was there? Where was that power? Who was that power? Was it finite or infinite?

There was neither death nor immortality. There was nothing to distinguish night from day. There was no wind or breath. God alone breathed by his own energy. Other than God there was nothing.
In the beginning darkness was swathed in darkness. All was liquid and formless. God was clothed in emptiness.

Then fire arose within God; and in the fire arose love. This was the seed of the soul. Sages have found this seed within their hearts; they have discovered that it is the bond between existence and non-existence.

Who really knows what happened? Who can describe it? How were things produced? Where was creation born? When the universe was created, the one became many. Who knows how this occurred?
Did creation happen at God’s command, or did it happen without his command? He looks down upon creation from the highest heaven. Only he knows the answer -or perhaps he does not know.”

Rig Veda 10:129.1-7

With its cyclical notion of time, Hinduism teaches that the material world is created not once but repeatedly, time and time again. Additionally, this universe is considered to be one of many, all enclosed “like innumerable bubbles floating in space.”

The concept of eternal and cyclical time lies at the heart of the Hindu world view and is closely related to the concept of atman. (Hindu sages claim that the individual’s self-understanding determines his or her perception of the world.) Hindus consider the real self to be ever-existing, not only in the future but also from the past. This notion of two-way eternity, however, is not reserved solely for the realm of spirit (Brahman) but extends to this temporal world. Within Hinduism we find no “year dot,” nor a final cataclysm. The closing of one door implies the opening of another. Destruction of the cosmos only portends its re-creation. The entire material world is thus subject to everlasting cycles of creation, sustenance and destruction.

This universe is said to exist for a lifetime of Brahma, the creator. His one day is 1,000 maha-yugas (great ages). Each maha-yuga consists of four yugas (ages), each progressively shorter and more degraded. They are the golden, silver, copper, and iron ages. According to tradition, we have had just over 5,000 years of Kali-yuga and there remain 427,000 years. At the end, the final incarnation of Vishnu, Kalki, is scheduled to appear, heralding the dawn of yet another golden age.

Accounts of creation differ in many respects. As per Hindu mythology, Brahma was born from a (kamala) lotus springing from Vishnu’s navel and created the world through his daughter Saraswati. According to Manu Smriti, the self- existent Lord manifested to dispel the darkness enveloping universe. He created the waters and deposited a seed that became a golden egg from which he was born as Brahma. He divided the egg into two parts to construct the heaven and earth, and created the ten Prajapatis, mind-born sons, who completed the work of creation. By a third account, the Lord separated himself  into two parts, the male and the female after dividing the golden egg. From him sprang Viraja and from him Manu. Ramayana states that Brahma sprang from the ether and that sages Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Narada, Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara, Sanasujata and others are his manasa putras (mentally conceived sons). From Marichi sprang Kashyapa from whom sprang Vishwavata who created Manu, the procreator of all human beings. Thus, Manu is Brahma’s great grandson.

Brahma is commonly represented as having four heads, four arms, and red skin. Unlike all the other Hindu gods, Brahma carries no weapon in his hands. He holds a water-pot, a spoon, a book of prayers or the Vedas, a rosary and sometimes a lotus. He sits on a lotus in the lotus pose and moves around on a white swan, possessing the magical ability to separate milk from a mixture of water and milk. Brahma is often depicted as having long white beard, with each of his heads reciting the four vedas.