Made to be non-invasive, the Sensimed Triggerfish is a continuous ocular monitoring system that uses a small telemetric sensor on disposable contact lenses. It is used to monitor glaucoma patients who are at risk of progression by capturing spontaneous changes in their eyes, allowing physicians with important information on their patient’s condition.


Monitoring the patient’s eye for 24 hours, the Sensimed Triggerfish provides a full image of the patient’s eye during their normal day. Since vision loss occurs at different rates for different people, this device allows doctors to help determine if the loss in vision is progressing at a fast or slow pace. Unlike normal optical appointments, the contact lenses provide the physicians with access to the changes in pressure, and volume of the patient’s eye, and also if there are any stress.

This allows specialists to visualise the patient’s IOP( intraocular pressure ) continuously. As mentioned Swissmed.Asia:

The data provided by the SENSIMED Triggerfish® complements punctual tonometer measurements and offers a qualitative profiling of the patient’s IOP for up to 24 hours. The pattern reproducibility of an individual patient’s profile allows for the optimisation of the glaucoma management*.

The Sensimed Triggerfish also helps doctors to determine the right treatment for the patients. There differing treatment levels for glaucoma, ranging from simply using eye drops to invasive surgical treatment. Thus, doctors would need to evaluate the severity of the situation before deciding on the appropriate treatment. This would be done effectively using a 24-hour monitoring system to follow the patients condition.

Patients would wear the device for a maximum of 24 hours, along with an adhesive antenna worn around the eye. Data is wirelessly transmitted from the contact lens to the antenna, and this data is then received by a portable data recorder worn by patients. This recorder then transmits the data via Bluetooth to the the physician’s computer.


The pros of this device is that it is non-invasive and can record and report changes in real time, allowing for quick response to any situation and also providing doctors full coverage of the condition of the patient. Unlike before, where patients have to repeated return to the clinic for multiple checkups, the device is more convenient for glaucoma patients, allowing them to have fewer physical checkups, yet still knowing their physicians are well-aware of their situation. It also does not interfere with their day to day activities.

In my opinion, the Sensimed Triggerfish is a great device as it targets the problem at hand directly, with a small convenient wearable device. Instead of large machines that need to be situated in clinics that patients have to repeatedly travel to use, such devices allow patients with more freedom amidst their checkups and diagnosis. This could definitely be extended to other health problems, such as diabetes. Patients who require often medicines would greatly benefit from wearable health devices.

One example would be the TheraOptix, created by Harvard Medical School. These are a pair contact lenses made to dispense medication directly into the eye of the patient over periodically over the course of days or weeks.

Such lenses could be paired up with the Sensimed Triggerfish, allowing patients to say goodbye to inconvenient continuous usage of eye-drops and repeatedly traveling to clinics for check ups. Since the elderly are at higher risk of glaucoma, this reduction in traveling and movement would be useful for them, as they would not be required to exert themselves as much as before.

I also really like the idea of the device being a pair of contact lenses that would be hard to be distinguished by others if they did not pay attention. While it is true the antenna makes the wearer stand out, perhaps if the technology advances further for the data to be sent directly to the portable data recorder, it would allow patients to have a smooth day without any glances from passersby. This may not be the intent of the device (to make the data recording inconspicuous), but medical devices being smaller and less obvious would perhaps allow users to feel more at ease and comfortable without the unneeded attention.


Some small cons of the Sensimed Triggerfish is that it has no optical correction, and thus patients with degrees may have to either carry on their day with blurry vision. Dry and red eyes is also said to be a common problem, though this could be solved with some eyedrops.

While the above two cons mentioned may bring some discomfort, I believe the pros of the device currently outweighs these cons. Allowing physicians to full data of the patient means that these patients would also receive better and more appropriate treatment. Thus, the Sensimed Triggerfish still proves to be a useful tool in this sense.

Yet, we must consider that the device may not be very suitable for their target audience. Since the target audience are patients with glaucoma, which are mainly elders, is the contact lenses suitable for those of much older ages? I believe those around their 50s would well benefit from this device and be able to use it with ease. However, those older, perhaps 65 and above, may not be able to wear the contact lenses well.

Those who seldom wear contact lenses may also find themselves using more time to wear the device rather than visiting the clinic. It may also not be comfortable for those who are not suited for contact lenses.

All in all, I think this device can be considered a breakthrough in health devices but definitely has more room to improve and expand on.




Triggerfish and other news in brief

AI-powered contact lenses give new meaning to 20/20 vision

Sensimed Announces Approval of the Sensimed Triggerfish in Japan

In class, we were tasked to think of gestures one would use with their phone to change the lighting of the room. We were then asked to make sketches of these gestures.

Together with Sylvia, Daryl and Wan Hui, the four of us thought up different ways to switch up the lighting; using physical gestures, voice/sound, and on screen.

“The demons in your mind, they flower there”
A collaborative project with Natalie Sim

Click the links below to view our slides:

Week 3 – Ideation Presentation 

Week 4 – Development Presentation

Week 5 – Design Draft Presentation



Title of project:

The demons in your mind, they flower there

Concept write up:

We were inspired by the quote by Nathaniel Hobs Jenkins, “Beauty becomes ugly under the influence of the demons inside the mind.”

We are all beautiful people, perfect white flowers waiting to bloom. Yet, we still crave perfect beauty, endlessly pursuing it. In our attempts to reach that beauty, the demons in our minds tell us that the perfection we hope to achieve is still far away. We attempt to chase after the epitome of beauty but drown in the concept of what true perfection is. Now, when we look at ourselves, because we overthink, because we have no self-love or because we are too harsh on ourselves, we warp our beauty into what we think is inner demons- ugliness and pain that other people don’t see. The disgusting flesh hiding within the perfect exterior of a white flower bud. We think that these demons are the representation of our raw selves, our true flesh. We tell ourselves that the beauty people say we have is just a plain white mask, and that they don’t see the ugliness hiding beneath it.

Our ugliness is on the inside solely because it comes from within- it is the demons in our own minds that have manifested the ugly in ourselves. The beauty we each have in ourselves is lost upon us, becoming imperfect and ruined in our own eyes. It is never enough, and the voices in our heads whisper confirmations of our failures.


We wanted a dress that looks simple, pure and pretty from the outside to represent the beauty that everyone has within them. We then wanted our transformation to be very visceral,  a full contrast of this pretty exterior- our flowers would open up to reveal a disgusting bloody flesh, instead of the expected beautiful flower. With this stark change in aesthetics, we wanted to show how people are afflicted by their own minds. How from the outside, others can see that we possess something so beautiful, but in our own heads, we just think the worst of ourselves. We’re not ugly/imperfect because we are, but because we think that that is what we truly are. Hence, this ugliness appears only on the inside and blooms like a flower from within our own minds.
We hope that with our dress, people might feel comforted that they’re not alone in this, and that this is a problem many others face as well. Or that people who don’t really have this issue with themselves might now be aware that this is an issue that some people face. And in all, we wanted people to know that despite some of us maybe thinking we have “a fake beautiful façade that conceals the true horrific flesh other people don’t see”, that in itself can be beautiful as well- We hoped that even with our flowers open, our dress still looks as pretty, or even prettier than when the flowers were closed


Model: Natalie Sim

Model: Natalie Sim


On the 10 March, we had a guest lecturer, Bin Ong Kian Peng, share about artificial intelligence, machine learning and a utopian world. Sharing many examples of technology and machine learning in art, the idea of a technological utopia was introduced to us, and the question of whether AI would result in a utopia or dystopia was posed.

The lecture was enjoyable and eye-opening, allowing us to be introduced to many new interactive artworks. Out of these works, there were many that were highly intriguing and thought-provoking, such as Refik Anadol’s Melting Memories exhibition, that projects the data collection translated from the process of memory retrieval, and Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg’s The Substitute, that explores a paradox: our preoccupation with creating new life forms, while neglecting existing ones.

Refik Anadol’s Melting Memories


Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg’s The Subsitute


However, at the end of the day, the one that pushed me to wonder more about humanity, AI, and human’s idea of a Utopia was Doomsday Book’s The Heavenly Creature by Kim Jee-Woon.


Doomsday Book’s The Heavenly Creature


The movie talks about a robot that reaches enlightenment on its own while working at a temple. Its creators regard this phenomenon as a threat to mankind and decide to terminate the robot, stating that this is a glitch in the robot. Arguments rise as to whether robots can achieve enlightenment, and the movie suggests the lines between humanity and robots are blurred, and whether enlightenment is achieved is also relative.

In the film, the robot that achieves enlightenment states the following:

To perceive is to distinguish merely a classification of knowing. While all living creatures share the same inherent nature, perception is what classifies one as Buddha and another as machine. We mistake perception as permanent truth and such delusions cause us pain. Perception itself is void as is the process of perceiving.

He goes on to say that perhaps all humans had already achieves enlightenment and he, a robot, sees this world as beautiful.


Such an eye-opening statement, and it is no doubt full of truth.

It is said that humans are only able to be “bad” or “good” because of our ability to differentiate the two and choose to do either. The choice of doing something deemed “morally wrong” causes us to become “bad”. Likewise, perhaps it is the perception of “success” and “failures” that also leads us to believe that there is more to the world, more to achieve before one can reach enlightenment.

Yet, the truth is that the world is how it is. And the robot in the film, who takes it as it is, not perceiving or classifying the world around him, as such does not crave anything more. He does not have worldly desires, as he takes what he has as it is, thus achieving enlightenment.


However, following this, I do disagree with one part of the show, that heavily influences whether or not I believe AI can help create a Utopian world.

In the movie, they say that the lines between humanity and robots are blurred, and that humans always had achieved enlightenment. It is our mistaking of perception as permanent truth that hurts us and thus fail to see things as they are. While this much is true, I believe that humanity and robots are fundamentally different as humans will almost never be able to detach seeing their perception as the truth.

It is said that “the fear of the unknown” is what every human is afraid of, and thus it is a continual cycle that we attempt to fill this void with what we perceive the truth to be, whether or not it truly is. A truly emotional feeling.

Unlike us, robots do not have such a fear and should they perceive the world and input “emotional feelings” towards certain things, it is also due to the programming by humans who have inflicted biasness onto their coding. Regardless of how much machine learning or how intelligent a robot may be, they are most often than not, highly objective, and lack the emotional classification that humans have. Thus, humans and robots are different.

While perhaps the objectiveness of the robot may potentially help to achieve society of maximised benefits in a “utopian” world. The so called “maximised benefits” may not be the best outcome for humans. Robots that does what they deem is necessary for the society may conflict with what humans consider “good”.

This perhaps can also be explained in movies that have AI’s actions conflicting with what is good for humanity. For example, in 2001 A Space Odyssey, HAL receives a conflicting command, and while it had chosen the “best” way to solve the conflicting command, it had resulted in multiple deaths. HAL’s actions had been solely on the basis of meeting his goal and not out of morality.

While this is an extreme example, what this means is that an AI utopia can easily become a dystopia if an AI is highly intelligent at accomplishing its goal but the goal not necessarily aligns with ours. This is also why so many AI dystopian movies exist.


Of course, one may argue that machine learning could help a robot to learn moral reasoning as well, and ensure the safety of all of humanity. Yet, as said in Bin Ong Kian Peng’s lecturer, according to Lyman Tower Sargent,

Utopia’s nature is inherently contradictory, because societies are not homogenous and have desires which conflict and therefore cannot simultaneously be satisfied.

Conflicting objectives, and different perception of truths result in difficulty in creating a utopia. Perhaps if one day humans create a robot so powerful, through machine learning, it is able to consider the “utopia” of every single individual in the entire world, and find a way to create a world with that objective made, then perhaps, an automated utopia will be able to be made.



Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence

When I think of the future of video games, the movie “Ready Player One” actually immediately pops into my mind. The game from the movie is one that uses virtual reality, but paired with gear and equipment to experience things beyond the boundaries of the game, and into reality. The line between reality and the game blurs, pushing to the extent that players were almost living only to play the game. While this is no doubt negative and detrimental, it is hard to deny that the idea of a game so immersive – one that could let the player feel what they experience in the game and act as they wish, was highly captivating.

The gaming industry seems to agree with my positive sentiments towards this idea of a game that is highly realistic and free. Thus, along with the technological advancements, the gaming industry has definitely been moving towards virtual reality and augmented reality.

I think a question we might find ourselves asking is “why do we crave this immersion”? Why do players hope to dive into a different world, yet crave it to be realistic? If we crave realism, why do we not just remain in the real, living world (one that is not fabricated by the minds of our own or others)? Why play a game to have fun, but yet want to completely forget you are playing a game?

I think perhaps the answer is that we crave for a world that is entirely not our own. It could be to run away from the restrictions we have – the binding of our entire being to other individuals and responsibilities since the moment we are born.

Thus, we may hope to achieve liberation in a new world, one where we can be free of the rules of the world, where we can play another role, and escape the supposed “flaws” and “imperfections” of the real world.

But surely, beside the depressing idea of humanity wanting to escape reality is not the only reason why games are popular.


For this reading assignment, I chose Sherry Turkle’s “Video Games and Computer Holding Power.” from The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. In this chapter of her book, she explains the psychology of why players love to play video games and how designers create games.

This reading was interesting and a real eye-opener to more reasons behind the appeal of immersive virtual reality games, citing examples like Pac Man, PinBall and Dungeons and Dragons.


In the part about the myth of “Mindless” addiction, I was brought one step closer to understanding the appeal of a game. Using Pac Man as an example, Sherry Turkle effectively explains that games require skills, and these skills can be trained. One has to learn the rules of the games and improvise. This perhaps brings about the revelation that games are “winnable”, then there is a “finish” to games. Unlike the complex and confusing real world, games that are programmed to act in certain ways, while providing a sense of release, gives a calming idea of an end goal. More often than not, humans are afraid of the unknown and crave to understand the “meaning of life”. Thus, whether consciously or not, the idea of a final aim brings a source of peace to our minds.

This idea could hence be effectively used by game creators, serving as a constant reminder of having goals in games. In the world of interactive media, I do believe that this aim is highly necessary. It is safe to assume that most users and participants would not wish to be more confused after experiencing the activity, unless that was the goal. While the process of the artwork itself may be puzzling and mysterious, the user should leave with an understanding of the experience, regardless of whether or not it is exact to what the artist intended.


Sherry Turkle constantly speaks of video games as a conversation, just like any other interactive artwork. This is very much true, and despite the lack of any face to face interaction, video games could stand to be more conversational than other mediums. In her text, Sherry Turkle goes to explain that the designer of the video game is “liberated”.

Their behaviour, like the behaviour of anything created by a computer program, is limited only by the programmer’s imagination.

They are able to create as they wish, and the game becomes a world created from their mind and imagination. What this means, is that when the player delves into the game, fully immersed, they begin to live and play within the mind of the creator. They are directly interacting with the thoughts of the creator, and are experiencing the creator’s life in some way or another.

For example, the game “The Binding of Isaac” follows the story of a young boy that flees into his monster-filled basement to escape from his mother, who receives a message from God demanding his life. As the player dives into the game, they are introduced to the experiences and thoughts of the developer Edmund McMillen regarding his feelings towards the positive and negative aspects of religion that he discovered from the conflicts of his Catholic and Christian family members growing up.

What this means is that while the player enjoys the game, they are intimately coming in touch with the childhood of the creator, and his thoughts regarding a specific matter. Hence, being directly connected to the creator.


Finally, Sherry Turkle states that

The entertainment industry has long believed that the highest payoffs would come from offering the public media that combine action and imaginative identification.

She moves on to explain how video games are effectively able to use both sides, and how technological advances are aiding this use to higher efficiency. New programming methods and hardware would push games to become more immersive, and this is already seen in existing equipment.

For example, the Virtuix Omni allows users to walk within the game, paired with a VR set. They mention:

The Omni takes virtual reality to the next level— allowing anyone to stand up and traverse virtual worlds with the natural use of their own feet. The Omni is the first virtual reality interface for moving freely and naturally in your favourite game. Moving naturally in virtual reality creates an unprecedented sense of immersion that cannot be experienced sitting down. That’s why we developed the Omni.

This level of immersion in games will allow for both direct physical interaction, and imaginative identification with the help of the virtual reality set. Hence, through the effective use of technology, we can bring the immersion of games to further heights.

Finally, the appeal of games and the odd crave for “immersion” can help us greatly in the creation of more interactive projects. The lessons learnt from this can move beyond the game realm and into projects of other mediums. Idea of a strong narrative and the definite need for a final aim, and conclusion for the participant to take away is needed in both games and other mediums.



Biomimicry works in many ways and thus I decided to split into three sections, namely, Textiles, Function, and Design, though often than most they tend to overlap.





Inspired by the microscopic structure of the Morpho Butterfly’s wings, the textile appears a shimmery cobalt despite its lack of pigment. The dress’s iridescent hue is a trick of the light, and is manufactured by Teijin in Japan.

A native of the South America rainforest, the Morpho is one of the largest butterflies in the world, with wings that span five to eight inches. The vivid colour on the upper surface of their wings is the result of microscopic, overlapping scales that amplify certain wavelengths of light while cancelling out others.

Similarly, Morphotex relies on fibre structure and physical phenomena such as light reflection, interference, refraction, and scattering to produce its opalescence. The fabric comprises roughly 60 polyester and nylon fibers, arranged in alternating layers that can be varied in thickness to produce four basic colors: red, green, blue, and violet.


Self Healing Fabric

A group of Pennsylvanians researchers from PennState implemented a new way to produce fabric in order for it to be self-healing and act as a barrier between the bearer and the outside world. By dipping the fabrics in several liquids, they create layers of material that then form a polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coating.

Similar to polymers present in Nature in the form of squid ring teeth proteins, positively and negatively charged polymers compose the polyelectrolyte coating. These quite amazing proteins already inspired the team to create a self-healing plastic last year.




“Fall” by Birce Özkan

“ … Fashion can be kinetic, dynamic and almost living expression of our unique experience with nature. I strongly believe that Fall can influence the fashion world to become more dynamic and to increase the way clothes can react to the world around them,” Özkan said. “I want clothing to have more responsiveness to the environment, so that instead of people always change their clothes, the clothes can sometimes change themselves.”

Birce Özkan began the garment design process by asking herself: “What if when the temperature got hot suddenly, our clothes would start to break apart in response? What if they had the skill to behave depending on the surrounding conditions? What if garments had the ability to sense the environment just like living organisms?”

Trees naturally shed leaves depending on the temperature and light. So, Özkan created an interactive garment that does the same. “In the fall, as the days shorten, and the temperature gets colder, the trees, without the light they need to sustain their chlorophyll, shed their leaves to keep their energy to survive for the winter ahead,” Özkan said. “This process was the inspiration for creating my garment’s mechanism. To prepare for the fall of leaves, trees activate “scissor cells” that split to create a bumping layer that forces the leaves out of place, destabilizing them so that they fall.”

Özkan used the same process for her garment that trees use. Light activates small motors in the garment. The motors speed up when there is less light and make the “leaves” fall from the garment. The motors are attached to steel wires, and the wires connect to holes where leaves are attached with wax. When there is less light, the motor pulls the wire which breaks the wax adhesion and makes the leaves fall down. Özkan said she believes the piece will help people have a greater appreciation for the earth.


“Augmented Jacket” by Birce Ozkan

Birds have a biological compass that tells them what direction to fly during migration. Their compass is guided by the earth’s magnetic field.

“This gives them a freedom that humans lack. Instead, humans become more dependent on their mobile phones to find their bearings. This dependency limits the awareness of their surroundings and denies them of some experiences,” Özkan said.

So she created a jacket that imitates a birds’ internal compass. The jacket uses an electronic compass and embedded motors that make the feathers on the shoulders rise up when the wearer walks north.

Black cockerel feathers are attached around the collar of the jacket and fully cover the skirt. Both are made from a dark cotton-based material and feature an integrated electronic compass, which is connected to motors on the end of the feathers. When the compass detects that the wearer is facing north, the plumage is raised up by the motors to look like a bird flapping its wings.

“During my research, what I found out is that when humans lose their way, the easiest way to reorient themselves and find their way is to face north and visualise the map,” Ozkan told Dezeen.

“If the wearer loses their way, the skirt or jacket helps to find where is north and then when they face their body north, they visualise a map and can navigate based on memory.”

The next step for her Augmented Jacket and Skirt is to link up the clothes with Google Maps so the feathers respond to programmed routes.

Augmented Jacket by Birce Ozkan

The feathers on the left side would flap when the wearer needs to go in that direction, and the opposite side for turning right.

“You can write down the address and then the feathers will guide you if you need to turn right or left,” said Ozkan. “In that way, people don’t have to be dependent on their mobile phones and can be more aware of their surroundings and allow them some experiences.”




Jean Louis Sabaji S/S 2013



Comme des Garçons F/W 2013/14

Her collection came cut in classic menswear fabrics like houndstooth, pinstripe, and Prince of Wales but also in those reminiscent of “Beetlejuice stripes” or cartoon bright floral prints that could be found in a kindergarten.

From there Kawakubo played with volume and proportion to create another one of her customarily challenging collection.

So that a suit would show up with whorls of abstract fabric flowers swelling out of it, a jacket would feature odd shaped inflatable balloons in a matching fabric that would incased the sleeves or the shaggy layering of strips of fabric was another way the designer also bulked up a few of her ensembles. And the idea to flatted the pants between the legs (as if the models were using their thighs to keep them hanging straight) was so off the wall only Kawakubo could pull it off.



Gucci F 2004


Yiqing Yin F/W 2012/13

Yiqing Yin’s new Autumn-Winter 2012-2013 collection re-imagines the female form in a world of purely mineral and vegetable composition.

The designer’s hand remains assuredly her own throughout excursions into bold and new galaxies of ever-shifting shades and shapes where tones blend and merge. Red remains pure while a slate grey betrays celestial glimmerings. Silver and blue fade into one.

Inviolably light cascades of satin and muslin offer oblique suggestions of chasteness through their mounting layers.

More of her works