red . museum

Without losing the aesthetics of a coffee maker, the combination of traditional and modern by combining the methods of brewing coffee is a delightful and innovative rendition to put a new twist to coffee maker designs which has had a long history.

Without altering the purpose of a tap which is to allow the passage of water to exit, the design of the tap with relation to the organic form of the medium it carries – water, was a rather “silent” yet unique quality to be added to the conventional and often rigid taps we are accustomed to.

field trip.


The convergence towards the concept of automation and light-weightness whether in terms of the design in visual appearance as well as the physical weight of the product can be observed. In comparison to vacuum cleaners of older model and design, there is a significant decrease in size of these cleaners, allowing usage with single hands or even without – due to automation of these machines.


Trend which seems to indicate multi-functionality of products whereby one single instrument can be adapted and detached to fit other appliances, increasing the usability and cost benefit of buying the product.


Mikael Axelsson

“If there’s one thing I’d want BURVIK side table to say, it’s: move me around! When I designed it I was inspired by how our lives and homes look today – fluid, flexible, active – and I wanted to make a piece of furniture that’s easy to lift and move so that it can be used for many different activities. The idea is quite simple. Whenever and wherever you need a space to put something on, BURVIK is there for you.”

True to Mikael Axelsson’s comments on his BURVIK side table, his design incorporates the element of fluidity into the design which can also be seen in his curved bench. Just by changing up the arrangement of the bench, the curves and design element of the product itself took into consideration the importance of furnitures in shaping the mood of an environment. As such, switching around the arrangement of the bench would allow a more cohesive sitting area or a fun and cherry environment with the benches arranged in a wave like formation.


In this piece, I decided to draw links to the Singapore culture via the juxtaposition of the modern and older aspect of Singapore which is perhaps the most prominent in the CBD district. With respect to the separation of the modern skyscrapers and the older shop houses, the most distinct differences between both would be the tall and structured looking  glass buildings versus the short and red-tiled shop houses. As such, I decided to make use of the color blue and squares to represent the buildings and red for the shop houses, which represents the red roof. Lastly, the ending touch would be the huge yellow circle which represents the sun which is both hated and loved, in this very tropical country.

art nouveau

As representative of the Art nouveau style which is characterised with the usage and presence of long, sinuous, organic line, I decided to go with this sort of water marbling effect in my abstract pattern using various tools. As a tropical country, Singapore is known to be a bright and sunny city with many greens. As such, with reference to the Tradescantia Spathacea plant which can be spotted along gardens or even roadsides of Singapore, the bright and prominent purple color is used in this piece. Overall the effect of the piece is meant to be cozy and to give off a tropical garden vibe as such the color scheme.


In Class

Image result for william morris

Among William Morris’s work, I felt that this piece would appeal to the local families especially in terms of its usage as wallpaper or even wall tiles due to its slightly muted tone as well as its elegant touches with the florals. Despite its intricacy, the piece looks presentable and soothing to the eyes.


Drawing of Jocelyn

Hyper Essay – Final

Walk, Walk, Walk: Search, Deviate, Reunite

teamLab, 2018, Interactive Digital Installation, Endless, Sound: Hideaki Takahashi, Voices: Yutaka Fukuoka, Yumiko Tanaka

Immersion: the action of immersing someone 
Hypermedia: an extension to hypertext providing multimedia facilities, such as those handling sound and video.
Interactivity: dialog that occurs between a human being (or possibly another live creature) and a computer program.

Just like the upside down in the science fiction horror series “Stranger Things”, “Walk, Walk, Walk: Search, Deviate, Reunite” co-exist with us in the parallel dimension, interacting and responding to the movement of the audience. As a remarkable shift from the traditional art form whereby only one-dimensional interaction with the art piece is possible, this interactive digital piece presents the unconventional. Implementing immersion, hypermedia and interactivity in one art work, the tale of this art piece is no longer limited to a few sentences attached on the wall beside it but speaks for itself though its mobility.

In this art piece, unknown and varied figures are constantly walking around on the screen. With the motion of the figures on the screen, the art piece moves along with the motion. Depending on the actions of visitors, the figures on the screen reacts, stopping, changing direction or moving in a different path. This space is made of a group of anonymous and diverse figures. The figures keep walking and as they do the artwork moves. When visitors touch the figures, they react, sometimes stop, sometimes change the direction and choose a different path. Visitors make decisions and choices as they keep walking. If visitors physically stop, the figures in front of them continue to move and interchange. As such, the audience is no longer a spectator which has been the role taken up by many in museums, but now a medium as well as a requirement for the completion of the art piece.

Via a computer programme, the art piece is constantly being rendered in real time. Due to the nature of the piece, indeterminacy is introduced to the work. Closely tied to the Zen expression “Hoho kore dojo” which meant every step is the place to learn, the figures on screen are in constant motion. Regardless of the circumstances which has occurred or is occurring, the figures on screen continues their state of motion while overcoming new situations – including the interactions with audiences. With constant changes happening which is heavily dependent on the behaviour and reaction of visitors, the piece will never be in the same state. As such, to every viewer, this art piece is never the same. While the experiences derived from this art piece could never be similar, there would always be some aspect of distinction for each and every viewer.

Channelling the principles from Nam June Paik’s Magnet TV, this artwork introduces a new form of materiality and the significance that is placed on intangible materials. Beyond the frames of a canvas and the strokes left on by brushes and paint, the materiality as suggested from “Walk, Walk, Walk: Search, Deviate, Reunite” could now be placed and emphasised on the idea of coding and information being inputted. On the other hand, the output which is the animated figures now become the “paints” on the canvases.

Interestingly, the concept of “Walk, Walk, Walk: Search, Deviate, Reunite” strongly ties in with the concept and principles of minimalism despite the essence of simplicity being absent in this context. With minimalism emphasising on the aspect of materiality which brings in new significance and focus on the usage of materials in an artwork, this piece of work could be seen as an unconventional twist to the concepts of minimalism.

Beyond the aesthetically pleasing outlook of this piece, this piece truly reflects the belief of teamLab where the capabilities of arts get expanded in the digital domain, creating new relationships between people. On the other hand, a whole new dimension and space is introduced into the world of arts as audiences gets to experience art through themselves – the medium to the dimensions.


Hyper Essay – Artist + Work

Walk, Walk, Walk: Search, Deviate, Reunite

teamLab, 2018, Interactive Digital Installation, Endless,

Sound: Hideaki Takahashi, Voices: Yutaka Fukuoka, Yumiko Tanaka

The inclusion of Interactivity, Immersion and Hypermedia in this piece of work makes this work an interesting piece to talk about along with the interesting elements of the work which strongly encompasses the idea of unpredictability.



“Minimalism is an extreme form of abstract art developed in the United States of America in the 1960s and typified by artworks composed of simple geometric shapes based on the square and the rectangle.”.[1] As part of the modernism art movement that took over the Western society in the early 1960s, minimalism came into the spotlight as young artists, mostly males[2] pioneered off to challenge the ideas principles of abstract expressionism. Like other art movements, minimalism is defined by several salient qualities in which some could be seen as an overlap with preceding art movements.

Firstly, one key feature of minimalism is the prioritisation of anonymity[3] of art works over the surplus of expressiveness as evident in the art of Abstract Expressionism.  Significance and application of art works were also prioritised over the symbolism and emotional linkage related to the work. As such, works of minimalism are self-explanatory and does not carry the story of the artist.

Minimalism art works can easily be identified with their salient qualities and characteristics. Their sleekness and geometrical appearance as well as the attention paid to the awareness of space in the art work greatly separates works of minimalism from others. With the purposeful lack of expression using factory-manufactured materials, minimalism artworks are meant to be self-referential.

With the simplicity in which minimalism embrace, Zen philosophy and the concept of Wabi-Sabi could have inspired the minimalism art movement. The idea of freedom and the essence of living in which Zen philosophy conveys draws closely to the timelessness of minimalism, advocating viewers to feel and sense. Zen philosophy goes beyond the superficial aesthetic values but rather introduces the touch of morality and essences of materials. This concept is clearly evident in that of minimalism where the focus are placed on the artwork itself, where there is a clear absence of the artist in the actual work.

Wabi-Sabi: The Japanese aesthetic of Wabi-sabi values the quality of simple and plain objects It appreciates the absence of unnecessary features, treasures a life in quietness and aims to reveal the innate character of materials

Compared to post-minimalism, the early onset of minimalism takes on a more objective approach. Post-minimalism on the other hand was characterised by women and is often connoted with the contemporary Women’s Movement[4]. To a certain degree, the emergence of minimalism which eventually led to the post-minimalism movement could be viewed as the stepping stone for female artists to be incorporated into the world of art.

While minimalism takes on its own style, essence of past art movements such as De Stijl and Bauhaus can be observed in the movement. In the case of all three movements, namely minimalism, Bauhaus and De Stijl, the presence of geometric forms is constantly being reintroduced. As these art movements are composed of a large presence of geometrical forms or emphasis, certain degrees of rigidness could be said to have introduced due to the evident lack of organic forms and shapes.

Like other art movements whereby an emerging art movement rejects the notion of the previous, minimalism takes on the same objective, rejecting those of preceding abstract expressionism. While both pop art and post-impressionism tries to address the issue of anthropomorphism through the reduction of such elements in the artworks, the concept of deciphering the meaning behind each work are still evidently prevalent.

Viewers are often the spectators when viewing an artwork, however, in the case of minimalism, we, the viewers are now involved in the “ritual” of making. Rather than being directed to view an artwork in a certain perspective, viewers can determine for themselves the materiality of the artworks through time and their senses of the surrounding.

Spaces are created by the materials used by the artist. However, there is no illusion of space regardless of the world or perspective the artist hope to convey. Rather the space is just space. Viewers do not need to decipher the meaning within the art, the story the artist hope to tell but merely to feel and experience. As the interaction are now limited to both the viewer and the object, the “thingness” and “suchness” of the objects jumps out to us like never before.

In Carl Andre’s work Eight Cuts (1967), pieces of aluminium were placed on the floor in an open space. Rather than asking viewers to stand at a specific point to analyse the piece of work, the work instead requires the viewers to walk around the entire space occupied by the pieces of aluminium. In the process of interacting with the materials, viewers themselves experiences the qualities of the aluminium pieces and its connection to the space it is placed within. Therefore, as demonstrated by this piece of work, minimalism is about the materiality of the work.

With the rather practical aspect of minimalism, the concepts of minimalism takes on their various manifestation in influencing several brandings and concepts. Namely, the Droog, supernormal as well as Muji Branding. As such, the practicality and materiality aspect of minimalism could be interpreted as a unconscious necessity of the society.

The interaction the viewers have with the space and the works brings meaning to the artworks. As such, minimalism artworks are timeless. They flow with the time and context, bringing fluidity to the meaning of art.



Blair Asbury Brooks. “The Intellectual Origins of Minimalism”. Artspace. February 18, 2015.

KRAUS, JERELLE. “THE NINETIES.” In All the Art That’s Fit to Print (And Some That Wasn’t): Inside The New York Times Op-Ed Page, 165-220. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.

Meyer, James. “The Minimal Unconscious.” October 130 (2009): 141-76.

Mills, Charlie. “Negating Art’s Ontology: Minimalism and Phenomenology”. Academia. 2018.

Morris, Robert. “Size Matters.” Critical Inquiry 26, no. 3 (2000): 474-87.

Salas, Juan. “Phenomenology of Minimalist Perception applied to Can Lis”. University of Zaragoza. 2018.

Tate. “Minimalism”. Tate. Accessed 2 September 2018.

Wolf, Justin. “Minimalism Movement Overview and Analysis”. The Art story Contributors. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.

Zelevansky, Lynn. “Sense and Sensibility: Women Artists and Minimalism in the Nineties.” MoMA, no. 17 (1994): 14-16.


[1] Tate. “Minimalism”. Tate. Accessed 2 September 2018.

[2] Zelevansky, Lynn. “Sense and Sensibility: Women Artists and Minimalism in the Nineties.” MoMA, no. 17 (1994): 14-16.

[3] Wolf, Justin. “Minimalism Movement Overview and Analysis”. The Art story Contributors. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.

[4] Zelevansky, Lynn. “Sense and Sensibility: Women Artists and Minimalism in the Nineties.” MoMA, no. 17 (1994): 14-16.