feedback from last week:

  • angles and proportions need to be justified and measured properly
  • think more specifically about the choice of material


revised proposal


optimal viewing distance: 5 metres

proposal 1 is true to size and accurately depicts the distorted perspective. we found the proportions to be too jarring, so we tried to minimise the angle in the next proposal.



optimal viewing distance: 15 metres

for both proposals, the metal structures are positioned and angled in such a way that when seen from the optimal position, they align with the edges of the canopy and the two poles behind are hidden by the front two.


vinyl stickers/indicators

different variations of indicators for optimal viewing position. echoes the shape of the structure







feedback from last week:

  • many of the structures proposed the previous weeks were too complex and dominates over the shadows i.e. viewers focus on the form rather than the shadows
  • keep the structure of the installation simple
  • use a combination of opaque and translucent material instead of only translucent to show more contrast



James Turrell


Felice Varini


on-site measurements

existing canopy (with similar shadow effect)




  • by pushing the supporting structure towards the inside, it creates a cantilever effect and viewers are more inclined to look upwards
  • the structures are angled so that the form does not blend in with the surrounding and overlooked, and does not look like the existing canopy
  • the panel is angled slightly on one side for easier viewing
  • the panel is inclined in this direction as it catches most of the sunlight, thus shows the most amount of shadows throughout the day
  • the size of the panel is set such that it covers the whole width of the corridor so that no shadows of the foliage shows at the edges, while maximising the stretch of the site
  • the shape of the translucent material in the middle plays an optical illusion such that it looks like a square from certain perspectives



simulation of material and distance.
from top to bottom, the distance between the light source and the panel increases, the shadow cast gets more blurry and less distinct.



applied illustration: audience, moodboard and ref

target audience

basic demographic:

  • 18 – 35 years old (students and/or working adults)
  • well-informed or at least aware of current situation on environment; a bonus if environmentally conscious or cares for animal rights
  • care to make a change for future generations??
  • probably with higher-paying occupations


user persona 1: Nyle

the one in front in grey…. maybe

Nyle is a 25-year-old travel agent, though he doesn’t like planning trips for himself and prefers to spontaneously find places to visit. he likes nature walks and long hikes with good company. recently, under his girlfriend’s influence, Nyle has made efforts to be more environmentally-conscious, starting small such as bringing his own tumbler and refusing plastic bags when not needed.

spontaneous // expressive // well-informed // open-minded // likes to engage in meaningful conversations and discussions


user persona 2: Marie

Marie is what you would call a typical 47-year-old ‘auntie’. she is a stay-at-home mother of two children and professional nagger. when something is broken, she doesn’t bother to fix them and would rather skip all the hassle by just getting a new one (courtesy of her husband’s income). she spends half of her time at home watching Taiwanese dramas.

stubborn // impatient // fixed mindset // wants to live a peaceful life // but makes sure everyone else doesn’t have a peaceful life by nagging at them



i had a few choices of colour palettes, but since the last two assignments i worked with muted and much darker tones, i think i’ll try to take the challenge of incorporating bright colours instead. also the brighter tones fit my concept and keywords better.



Juliette Oberndorfer

i love how the colours in which the artist uses in these illustrations doesn’t conform to the real world, making the composition seem more fantasy-like. the bright and saturated tones also adds to the fantasy effect, almost as if they came out of Harry Potter.


Mark Conlan

what draws my attention to Conlan’s works are the ‘strips’ of imagery that leads the viewers’ eyes across the composition. the juxtaposition of colours and contrast also gives them a dream-like effect.


Lieke van der Vorst

this illustrator makes effective use of monochrome, sketchy drawings of animals with the combination of cleaner, brightly-coloured elements around the animals. the colours surrounding the monochrome subject of illustration makes the animals pop out even more.


applied illustration: research and concept

two weeks ago, i saw a few posts on instagram about the passing of Sudan, the last male northern white rhino, and this got me interested in delving deeper into this topic! so i started digging around for more information on extinct animals, or more specifically individuals like Sudan who are the last member of their species.

my concept is basically a fundraising / charity event to prevent endangered and threatened species from becoming extinct, by putting these survivors of their entire species in the spotlight and gain empathy



after some digging around, i found that there is a term used to call these creatures who are the last survivors of their species: endling.

endling was coined in the mid-1990s by Robert Webster. there were also alternatives such as ender or terminach. but none of these terms are used often or even listed on the dictionary, so people are unfamiliar with these words.

i wanted to try changing that. i want to let more people learn about the term endling, and maybe from there learn more about the endling situation!  i was thinking of using the term explicitly for the event name, like “The End of Endling” or “An Ending to Endling” and maybe use them as a hashtag as well to raise awareness of the term, at the same time tying it back to the event


i found an article that became the base of my inspiration. it was such a good read, very well-written, and gave me new insights that i think more people should know about!

The Sense of an Endling

to summarise, the text lists a number of endlings with their own sad stories, which would be my main inspiration for the campaign posters. they had also described the story of Celia, the last Pyrenean Ibex, and her last moments, as well as how scientists had tried to bring back Celia’s taxon from extinction. one quote within the text struck me:

“At this very moment, brave conservationists are risking their lives to protect dwindling groups of existing African elephants from heavily armed poachers, and here we are in this safe auditorium, talking about bringing back the woolly mammoth; think about it.” 

this statement is the reason why i want to dedicate the fundraising event to endangered and threatened species instead of bringing back what we have already lost.


concept: fact or fiction?

as i was looking for images of endlings and a few extinct animals, i found some of them looked like they were mythical creatures of some sort?? like they weren’t actually real.

especially the Tasmanian tiger!! (above)

so i was inspired to play with the concept of fact or fiction, history or myth, real or fantasy. there is also the underlying message that if we don’t put a stop to endlings now, these common animals (like the rhino) to our grand-grand-grand-children will look as if they are mythical creatures too!

to bring forth the idea of these creatures as mythical, i want to try using bright and fantasy-like colours (deep purple, bright pink, neon blue, saturated lime green) to depict these endlings. i’m also trying to play around with the idea of using juxtaposition between accurate, anatomical drawings in monochrome, and fun, playful illustrations in bright hues (see examples below)
















the items

some ideas of possible illustrated items for the fundraising event:

  1. campaign poster
  2. banner (describing the event details) maybe??
  3. thank you card… maybe?
  4. tote bag
  5. misc souvenirs, like postcard, badge, sticker, magnet, coaster, pouch, notebook, etc.

i was thinking of using a Patreon-style system, where you can donate a certain amount and the items you get accumulate depending on how much you pay (kind of like the one below!)

as for the choice of items to be given out, i think i’ll create a user persona first to decide what type of things the target audience would be interested in getting!


research on fundraisers

for now, these are a couple of examples of fundraising events that i can reference a variety of souvenirs from!

Charity Organisation ORANGE


Congo Children’s Fund


alright, that’s all folks! next up: moodboard, user persona and artist references!


list of references (more like a note-to-self):

  • http://metro.co.uk/2018/03/22/final-moments-worlds-last-male-northern-white-rhino-sudan-7408650/
  • https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/29/earth-lost-50-wildlife-in-40-years-wwf
  • https://www.buzzfeed.com/katienotopoulos/5-animals-who-were-the-last-of-their-species?utm_term=.uxRZlDjk6#.wv198XJG1
  • http://www.lastwordonnothing.com/2017/10/19/the-beginning-of-the-endling/


feedback from last week:

  • the proposal last week was too much like a shelter; not intentional enough; people passing by will look at it as a ‘shelter’ and not a medium to frame the shadows
  • suggestions: maybe add holes or use repetitive shapes, something that is more intentional and will let people think that it’s not just a shelter
  • how do you utilise holes without them blocking the shadows?
  • another suggestion: research more into interesting materials that possibly interacts with the light



Rabbit and the Tortoise collection by Studio Juju


Manta by Ross Lovegrove


Fata Morgana by Teresita Fernandez


La Pineda by Javier Mariscal


Playground for Machida Kobato Kindergarten by Etre Design


material research

1   fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light.

Fluorescent materials cease to glow nearly immediately when the radiation source stops, unlike phosphorescent materials, which continue to emit light for some time after.

type: luminous

characteristic: lightly visible under sunlight, no effect in the dark or at night


2   phosphorescence

Phosphorescence is a process in which energy absorbed by a substance is released relatively slowly in the form of light.

natural phosphorescence


Image result for glow in the dark

This is in some cases the mechanism used for “glow-in-the-dark” materials which are “charged” by exposure to light. Unlike the relatively swift reactions in fluorescence, such as those seen in a common fluorescent tube, phosphorescent materials “store” absorbed energy for a longer time.

type: luminous

characteristic: clear in the day, visible in the dark or at night


both fluorescent and phosphorescent effects can be achieved by luminous paint – easily found in Singapore paint shops, Art Friend, Spotlight, Lazada



3   photochromic

Photochromic materials are colorless in their inactivated state and become colored when exposed to an ultraviolet light source. They will respond to natural sunlight, and darkens as the light level increases.

Common applications of photochromic materials include sunglasses and spectacles.

type: darkening/colour-changing

characteristic: visible under sunlight, clear in the dark or at night

effect of photochromic ink

online products:

Solarmax Series ink (used in the video)
SFXC UV photochromic plastisol


4   coloured glass

Colour Glass collection by Scholten & Baijings for Hay

coloured glass suppliers in Singapore:

LLumar Decorative Window Film

http://www.synergraphic.com.sg/synergraphic/public/productMain.jsp ???


form development


similar concept to last week’s, but the shape is curved upwards to make the form more intentional and deliberate, unlike conventional shades



irregular and organic forms intentionally designed so as to not resemble a conventional shade/canopy


  • draped fabric to show interplay between positive and negative spaces
  • also allows interaction with the wind as the fabric is hanging freely
  • the shadows interact with the curved planes and are distorted to give a different perspective and dimension


reference photo for proposal above:

by James Turrell
Garden Pavillion by Kersten Geers David Van Severen
Sky Tree bus shelter by Atelier “DEN”



wk9: further form explorations

feedback from previous weeks:

  • the circular screen installation proposed does not fit into the site proposed
  • how do you expect people to use the installation?
  • make a specific proposal of the installation


when developing forms and functions for the installation, we were stuck on the idea of having the passerby notice the shadows (forcing it on them). benefit of doubt that the users see what we intend to do. so we decided to leave it open-ended.


we clarified that there are two directions we could take to use the shadows in the environment:

1   define a space. because the environment chosen is a common area and is too noisy, the aim of the installation is to tone down and create a neutral space. some examples of forms the installation could take are canopy, architectural pieces, tunnel, partition.

2   define a three-dimensional object. by placing an object that is out of context and stands out from the environment, people are more inclined to look at them as individual objects rather than objects that blend in the background to only serve a purpose (e.g. shelter)


another point we clarified was also to use simplified forms, because the aim of the installation is to make use of the shadows surrounding the site, and a form that is too complex will simply overshadow and dominate the shadows. at the same time, it cannot be too simple; it needs to have a character and intentional so that it does not blend in to the background.


curating light through space and architectural structures


(above) 5-metre tall structure with hanging polyester mesh. interacts with the wind and serves as a big canva for the shadows to cast and interact on. the takeaway of this structure is that it is simple yet the size makes it eye-catching, and does not take away from the shadow.



shade structures by MDT-tex


Excentrique by Daniel Buren


Le Refuge by Marc Ange


Virgin Lounge Melbourne by Tonkin Zulaikha Greer Architects





in regards to the character and intention, the curved structure vs the rigid structure of the existing canopy suggest that there is an intentional design process. it does not look like an off the shelf structure, but a one-off, customised, curated and specific.


material: polyester mesh, stainless steel structure to foundation

height: 3-4 metres

can be duplicated/arrayed along the stretch of the walkway

possibility of using colours for material





different from the previous idea in which we are framing the shadows in the environment, the second idea is more curated towards creating shadows with the installation. the installation provides a structure for vines and climbing plants to grow on them, where the structure creates rigid shadows while the plants curate more organic shadows.


wk7: material exploration and form development

feedback from last week

  • consider using textures or 3D forms so shadow is distorted and cast at different angles, playing around with the 3D volumes instead of a flat plane
  • think about the fallen leaves and how to get rid of them; the leaves may make the installation blend in more with the environment and less noticeable to passerby
  • reflective material – must be above waist level; cannot be seats


site observation

chosen site: stair linkway between North and South Spine


shadow time-lapse (11.30 – 15.30)



material exploration
in relation to last week’s first form exploration (mirrored seat), thus we tested out reflective materials and how they interact with the shadows


(left) brushed aluminum sheet
(right) polished aluminum sheet



(left) reflective paper sheet
(right) glossy plastic sheet

interesting distortion effect of reflection on glossy plastic sheet, which reminds us of the shadows on the ground



Tom Fruin


Catherine Losing


In Flakes by Mount Fuji Architects Studio


further exploration and development


new light features from newly upgraded school infrastructure in North Spine

the shadow cast is an inspiration for our updated proposal found below, which is also relevant at night

an update from last week’s second form exploration with nighttime consideration of installation



emphasis on shadow

using coloured acrylic to cast colourful highlight, making the effect more noticeable

framing the shadow with the use of the coloured acrylic



next step

  • further idea development
  • constructing life-size mock-up to test effect
  • potential consideration for wind interaction with installation




editorial illustration: references and moodboard


John Holcroft
conceptual and editorial illustrator

i love how Holcroft illustrates controversial concepts in an interesting manner, letting the audience view his take on certain ideas. for this assignment on editorial illustration, i would like to illustrate key points of the theme in the same manner as Holcroft, using unique analogies that quickly and effectively relate the message.


Yuko Shimizu
editorial illustrator

Shimizu’s works are beautifully illustrated, carefully inked, and finished with muted yet eye-catching colours. i like how her style is a fusion between american pop illustrations and japanese manga styles. being heavily influenced with japan’s manga illustration styles myself (and finding it a little hard to break out of the habit of drawing in that style), i find Shimizu’s style inspiring as she did not shy away from her roots nor ignore the style she often sees in her environment, and instead incorporated them both into her illustrations to make her own unique style.

(also her use of dynamic brush strokes is similar to what i am used to, so i would like to use her ink art as reference)


Akiya Kageichi

words cannot even describe how much i find Kageichi’s style stunning and mesmerising. from the composition and the amount of details put into each piece, to the minimal colours and textures used. though some of his works look a little chaotic, a good few are framed beautifully and lets the viewers’ eyes move across the illustration.


style-wise, i am still unsure which direction i want to take: either something minimal and effective like Holcroft’s illustrations, or detailed and impactful like Kageichi’s. (or perhaps even something in between like Shimizu’s artworks.) so i created two moodboards with different keywords, just to keep my options open.

moodboard 01

keywords: dark, delicate, layered, intricate, muted


moodboard 02

keywords: minimal, clean, modern, bold, whimsical


editorial illustration: user persona

basic demographic of Varoom consumers:

  • 18 – 30 years old
  • aspiring students and graduates, workers in the creative industry, has immense interest in the creative works
  • probably has money to spare
  • familiar with design, music, fashion, or one of the art fields
  • seeking for deeper insight of the creative industry, as well as know-hows from interviews of employees of the industry

[i made two user personas because i’m still contemplating whether i want to illustrate a sad-funny analogy of the theme, or in a serious style. the two personas help me gauge the spectrum of Varoom consumers and maybe decide which style i would like to use]

user persona 01: janine

Janine is a 26-year-old social media manager of a well-established magazine company. she enjoys aimlessly scrolling through Pinterest and sarcastic jokes.

likes both basic and quirky aesthetic // witty // creative // a little emotional // busy // always in it for the gram


user persona 02: Troy

Troy is a 28-year-old sound designer with an interest in illustrations and graphic design. He occasionally splurges on whimsical things that interest him at that moment in time.

spontaneous // playful // creative // open-minded // does not care much for social media // well-informed


anti-persona: Walter

Walter is a 37-year-old telemarketer who only cares about three things: his family, his lunch break, and pleasing his boss. He spends most of his free time watching mindless shows on the television.

efficient // detail-oriented // serious // dislikes changes // wishes to retire with valuable assets to be passed to his children

editorial illustration: research


content includes comments and discussion on contemporary illustration from a global audience, as well as interviews with illustrators, image-makers, designers

[source: Association of Illustrators (AOI)]


editorial illustration

Across the spectrum of print and online publications, art directors rely on illustrators not only to create beautiful and attention-getting images, but also to help impart information and express complex ideas. Editorial illustrations bring stories to life and entice readers to engage with content.

— Jenny Carless (Adobe Create Magazine)

what is an editorial illustration?
an engaging visual representation of the accompanying article that clearly tells a story or convey a concept to the readers


two elements of editorial illustration:
concept and style

these two go hand in hand. a successful illustration can illuminate the essence of an idea effectively through the use of a fitting style to convey the mood; is it humourous? serious? thought-provoking?





psychological identification with or vicarious experiencing of feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
[source: dictionary.com]

putting yourself in another’s shoes and/or experiencing from another’s point of view; not necessarily having experienced the feeling yourself
[source: self interpretation]


the three types of empathy

cognitive empathy “THINK IT”
understand what another is thinking or feeling

emotional empathy “FEEL IT”
put yourself in another’s shows and feel their emotion that may lead to pain and burnout

compassionate empathy “BE MOVED BY IT”
feel concern about another’s suffering, but from a distance and with the desire to help (positive feedback that relates to motivation and reward)


from personal experience

being quite an emotional sponge myself, i tend to absorb another’s emotions relatively easily – i would feel their suffering if they are in pain, their anger if someone irritates them, or even their excitement if they look forward to something. i do enjoy listening to their tales and rants. but sometimes… they get a little too overwhelming. most of the time? my positive energy gets sucked out and i end up feeling numb.

people say that empathy is an exceptional skill to have, not only personally, but also socially and career-wise. but for some (like myself) who do not know when to stop sharing the same thoughts and feelings as another, it can get very exhausting… especially when the other spouts nothing but negative remarks.

thus for this editorial illustration, i narrowed the theme down to

the trials and tribulations of having too much empathy

(to put it a little dramatically)


some negative impacts of empathy:

  1. feeling the pain and experiences of another; indirectly inflicting the pain and negativity on yourself
  2. always having to put up a positive front
  3. feeling burdened (especially when you don’t have anything substantial to make the other feel better); the idea of it weighing you down
  4. TIRING; burnout