Locale ~ Part 1

Before diving into the creation of our zine for part 2 of project 2, part 1 requires us to complete an in-depth research of our location; a unique site in Singapore. To kick off part 1, I began my research online to jot down a few places of interest that I could possibly visit.


Bras Basah Complex
someplace familiar to me
second-hand bookstores

AVA Senoko fishery port
brings back memories of childhood
how I hate the smell of wet markets
reminded me of Tsukiji fish market in Japan but a local Singapore version
never knew of this fishery port
respect for the people in this industry and how it operates during the night

The Senoko fishery port is a place that I never knew existed in Singapore. I was really excited to visit the place initially, but after reading through online blogs about the place it seems that it isn’t much different from a regular wet market except that it operates during the night and through the early morning.

Upon further consideration, I realized that having lived out of Singapore for many years, there’s one place that I’ve always liked visiting when I’m back and that would be Haji Lane. It’s always been nice to just stroll through the shops on a quiet afternoon browsing through the quirky nic nacs that are rare to spot in regular shopping malls. The selection of my location was hence decided; Haji Lane.


What is primary research and what is secondary research? Please provide examples of both.

Primary research involves gathering data that has never been collected before. For example, conducting your own survey with questionnaires or interviews with a specific group of people. Secondary research, on the other hand, involves the use of primary research data that is already available. It could be further analysis or interpretations of primary research. Examples are studies or reports by agencies or businesses within the same industry.

What is qualitative and quantitative data? How would you go about collecting the two?

Qualitative data is information about quality and cannot be measured numerically. Examples could be the softness of your hair or the grace at which you walk. It involves descriptions of the quality of things. Quantitative data, on the other hand, involves information that can be measured with numbers. Examples include the age of your car or the length of your fingers.

What are ethnography and participant-observation? What are some ways collecting data?

Ethnography is defined as “the scientific description of peoples and cultures with their customs, habits and mutual differences.” It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where researchers observe society from the subject’s point of view.

Participant-observation occurs when the observer participants in the activity and records his/her observations as a ‘player’ in action. They take on the role of being studied and may involve living in a commune, or becoming a firefighter.

What are infographics and how are they used to effectively communicate data? What other ways can we visually represent data?

Infographics are visual representations of information that use design to express content. The simple yet informative design effectively communicates data clearly and quickly. Examples of infographics are signs, maps and data representations. Other ways to visually represent data.

Interview Qns 

Before visiting Haji Lane, I prepared two sets of interview questions for the respective interviewees. The questions are targeted at obtaining both quantitative and qualitative data.

On-site interview questions (passers-by):

  1. What is your age and race?
  2. Are you a local or tourist?
  3. How often do you visit Haji lane and why are you here today/why do you come back here?
  4. Could you name me your favourite quality about haji lane/a unique quality about the place
  5. Approximately how much time do you spend here?
  6. Do you take photos of the wall murals and do you know the artist?

On-site interview questions (shop staff/owners):

  1. What is your age and race?
  2. How long has this shop been around for?
  3. Why did the owner choose haji lane as a location to buy/rent a unit?
  4. Could you name me your favourite quality about haji lane/a unique quality about the place
  5. Regarding the wall murals, have you ever taken pictures of them and do you know the artist
  6. Are the items you carry your own products or are they commissioned and how do you source for them?

Jotting down notes + interview responses

Aside from conducting interviews on site, I also created another set of questions for an online survey on SurveyMonkey. The quantitative responses I received were helpful in contributing to my quantitative infographics while the qualitative data allowed me to gather more unique selling points of Haji Lane.

Qualitative Data



Quantitative Data

Haji Lane – History 
  • Reputedly Singapore’s narrowest street
  • Named after “haji” – the pilgrimage undertaken by Muslims
  • Just over 4 meters wide, lined on both sides with centuries-old shophouses
  • Buildings are of early shophouse style, characterised by minimal plaster ornamentations and low ceiling height
  • In the past, they were used as accommodation for Muslim pilgrims transiting through Singapore
  • Today, some of the shophouses have been beautifully restored

Primary research method:

  • on-site interviews

Secondary research method:

  • online research
  • history of haji lane
  • TripAdvisor

Qualitative Data: can be presented through illustrations + sketches

  • People’s favourite / unique quality about Haji Lane

Quantitative Data: can be presented through infographics

  • Time spent there
  • How often is their visit

UPS aka Unique selling point:

  • street art, boutiques, bars
  • combination of styles and character

Following this consultation, my next step was to arrange all the data that I have into an organised order for presentation.

Final presentation & Crit.

Here are my final slides for the research: Haji-Lane.pdf!

Joy mentioned that although I covered a large variety of different unique qualities, I can try to focus on one for part 2. The main point about Haji Lane as a creative space was brought through but I maybe I can consider the contrast between day and night at Haji Lane. Some classmates feedbacked that I had a good range of research methods and suggested that maybe I could look into patterns from the wall murals for my zine since they were eye-catching.

For part 1 of this project, I really focus on obtaining research and covered quite a few aspects of Haji lane as a whole so moving along I can now narrow down what I have. 🙂

Research Critique 2 ~ Telematic performance

The third space to me is an infinite space for connection between people. Regardless of where they are, the third space could be defined as “a space with no geological boundaries” (Satellite Arts Project).

An interaction between one another despite being in different locations collapses boundaries in the third space. It involves defying distance similar to what we experimented with in our microproject 2, which is made possible with accessible advanced technology. Although the absence of physical contact may convey a lack of intimacy, I think space in terms or privacy and the scale in which the interaction is occurring in defines closeness.

Paul Sermon, Telematic Dreaming, 1992

A great example of an increase in intimacy through a private space is Sermon’s Telematic Dreaming where two beds are placed in different locations. According to Sermon, ” The ability to exist outside of the users own space and time are created by an alarmingly real sense of touch that is enhanced by the context of the bed.” The interaction with only one other individual will often hold greater intimacy in comparison to a group of people (e.g. Hold in Space)

“Our sense of reality is fragmented and juxtaposed” 

In our own interpretation of a third space, Frederick and I approached it from a two-point perspective where I became his “eyes” as he wandered through the library.

Our collaboration into combining our perceptions into one portrayed on two screens demonstrates connection through the synchronization of our movements simultaneously. The outcome allowed for a journey that cannot be experienced in real life because we were virtually in the same space but physically apart. As Randall Packer says, “this state of shared presence inhabits an entirely new way of seeing via a fracturing perception.”




Pandora Revisited

Kicking off sem 2 with a new project, we were tasked to manipulate a basic 3D object volume with operative verbs that we picked at random. The verbs that I had chosen was bend, notch and array


Bend: shape or force something into a curve or angle
Notch: an indentation or incision on an edge or surface
Array: display or arrange things in a curved manner

Diving straight into the assignment, we started moulding our modules to represent all 3 verbs out of clay. Although it was fun to work with clay, my modules kept breaking after the clay was dry so here are 2 of my initial modules, one of which I used as the final model.

First Module 

 Working with the terms, bend and notch, both my modules consist of 3 separate parts varying in size that are bent and notched together when they are cradled.

In this first module, I took a more curved approach to the structure and hence although the modules are bent, they do not have a sharp angular edge. It turned out to somewhat resemble 3 ticks that are notched together at its curved edge. The module was sculpted with clay which was a great material to work with when creating curved shapes but is very fragile when dried because some of my other prototypes kept breaking.

Technical drawings

Right ~ top view
Left ~ bottom view

Plan ~ top & bottom

4 sides

Elevation ~ 4 sides

Second Module 

In this second module, I created it out of blue foam because it was a much more angular structure and it was easier to achieve its smooth edges with the foam cutter.

Similar to my first module, this one was again made out of 3 parts, each that was bent and notched together. The difference here is that the sizes for each part were kept the same.

Technical drawings

Right ~ top view
Left ~ bottom view

Plan ~ top & bottom

4 sides

Elevation ~ 4 sides


Sectional cut



After creating the individual modules, the next step to this project was to create an ice tray out of multiples of our model. 


Moving to the next step which was to duplicate our modules, we had the option of either working with silicon or latex. It was up until this point where I decided that I would go with my second module design as the individual pieces could notch with one another and fit into my final verb, array. After analyzing both modules, I also realized that the second one would be easier to duplicate as there were no gaps in between them.

Since the design of my module was rather “step-like” as there were many levels and also a void in the middle, I thought that working with latex would be better since I could really cover all its edges.


After applying a coat of baby oil to my foam model, I began coating it in thin layers of latex. Many many hours and many many layers of latex after, I successfully created a latex mould out of my module.

latex mould

After the latex mould was created, it was time for the duplication process to start with the use of plaster. After mixing the plaster powder with water, I poured it into the latex mould and waited 30-60mins for it to set before removing it.

After repeating this process for 6 times, I ended up with 3 successful and 3 unsuccessful outcomes.

Successful attempts

Here are 3 of the plaster duplicates that came out alright. The surfaces were not the smoothest but they were still held together as one piece. The other 3, however, broke into pieces as I was taking it out of the mould. This occurred because the opening gap of my mould was quite small and hence I had to force the bottom parts out.

Unsuccessful attempts

Ice Module Arrangements

Arrangement 1

3 modules

Arrangement 2

2 modules

Arrangement 3

2 modules

Arrangement 4

2 modules

After multiple attempts at different arrangements, I found that it was actually simpler to notch together just 2 modules instead of 3.

Ice tray – Isometric drawings 

individual modules


Final ice tray arrangement

This is my final arrangement for the ice tray placed in a circular manner so as to have them in an array manner.

Ice tray ~ Plan

Ice tray ~ section and elevation

Pouring in the Silicon 

Although I did have my duplicates made out of plaster, I decided to use foam for the final pouring of silicon for the ice tray instead because the details were a lot smoother and neater with blue foam.

Due to the very angular structure of my module, it was going to be challenging for me to remove the modules from the silicon after it dries. In an attempt to fix this problem, I stuck each module onto a rectangular base, in the hopes of it creating a wider opening gap.

Rectangular bases

To save the amount of silicon wasted, I placed a cylinder block in the middle in order to occupy more volume.

Unfortunately soon after the silicon was poured, two out of my five modules began to float up. The cause of this might because the glue used to stick the foam down hadn’t been dried enough yet, or maybe because the weight of the silicon between the voids in my module lifted them up. I was glad that I still had 3 other modules to rely on 🙂

Ice Making

Coming back to my silicone mould a week after it was poured, it was strangely still not completely dried and hence I left it for almost another week. Unfortunately, it still wasn’t completely dry, especially the areas around my modules.

shiny bits = still sticky

Nonetheless, I proceeded to try making some ice.

I would say that the overall structure of the module turned out pretty well except that some edges started to curve as it melted. During this first round, no silicon was transferred onto the ice. However, during my second round, the non-dry silicon transferred onto the ice cubes and hence it melted a lot quicker as I tried to wipe it off.

notching the individual cubes together

Despite some rather tedious process this project entails, I had a lot of fun throughout it all and I worked with mediums like silicon, latex and plaster which I have never experimented with before 🙂 A lot of trial and error went into this project which definitely taught me about thinking ahead for the success of future procedures.

Research Critique 1 ~ Micro project 2

 Crowdsourced time-based art

Drawing on each of our arms respective to the images that we had

For our micro-project 2, crowdsourced time-based art, the direction that my team went for was to gather a collection of visual reactions through simple, on the spot drawings. With a random image on each of our phones, we set out to people within the vicinity of ADM to ask for their participation. With the limitation of three markers, in the colours red, green and blue, they had the freedom to draw anything they wanted in reaction to the images we showed them.

This crowd-sourced project includes great qualities of D.I.W.O because it involves creation through a community of people. Unlike works that are created by a single artist, a collective artwork enables participants to possible inspire future participants. It allows for constant growth and redefinition of “the final product”. Instead of looking at the final outcome as whats valuable, the process is what tells a story.

“Everyday people are choosing to find their own examples of what they consider to be art, rather than just reading approved promotions by the mainstream press”

This quote from the D.I.W.O article reinforces the versatility of art and how each individual can contribute something uniquely different and hence determining what the outcome becomes.
The work that we created involves social interaction not only between us and the participants but also between the participants themselves. Since there are no limitations to what they can create, we end up with an outcome consisting of various interpretations of the same image. Our group took a more physical approach to the project where not much of technology was involved.

the sheep market, Aaron Koblin

the sheep market

Similarly to the sheep market crowdsourcing project by Aaron Koblin, our project also involves the collection of drawings except not done digitally. Koblin’s  work shows an example of crowdsourcing works breaking the boundaries of “art” and “artists” as anyone can create art. If our group possibly chose our images more strategically, our drawn outcomes could have been more unified.