4D Final Project: Evocative Objects- Can you hear your image?



By Qian Yin, Rui Meng and Joey.

1st Part: Concept

For this interactive installation, we aim to target people’s attention towards what they are wearing. This is because it has been officially proven that many Singaporeans are not mindful about their dress codes whenever they go, leading to improper dressing a lot of times. It is to be noted that we are not stereotyping anyone, nor are we discriminating against people who are wearing a certain type of attire. This project only aims to remind people to pay attention to how they look to other people, and what image they give off to them. Furthermore, we narrowed down our analysis towards very generic physical appearances such as spectacles, hairstyles and types of shoes.

The point of this project is to remind people about what they are wearing, and for them to reflect about how they want to portray themselves to others. Ways of dressing and outfitting is important because when done deliberately, it can potentially spell out our personalities and individuality. This is because what we wear essentially reflects our own styles most of the time. While it should be noted that this may not be an accurate description of oneself nor stereotyping, this analysis of one’s portrayal is simply an impression others may have on the targeted audience.

While seemingly superficial, it cannot be denied that in many parts of society, people are concerned about appearances, be it at work, school or socializing. A reminder is that this project does not aim to make anyone feel good or bad. Rather, it is simply to act as a catalyst for people to be attentive to what they are wearing.

Description and Equipment needed

2nd Part: Equipment and Setup

We will be needing an array of equipment. The following equipments are;

  1. 2 Speakers
  2. 4 Cameras
  3. 1 Motion Sensor
  4. 1 Music Player
  5. 1 Screen
  6. 4 Projectors

The speakers will be situated at the top of the entrance, beside either sides of the door.

The cameras will be situated at the following areas:

  1. One facing outside school at the entrance
  2. One facing inside school at the entrance (Back to back with 1)
  3. Two cameras facing towards the entrance, one on each side.

The motion sensor will be situated at the side of the door.

A music player will be attached and linked to the cameras.

A screen will be hung in front of the stairway on the 1st floor, while the 4 projectors can either be hung up on the wall, or on the ceiling.

Set-up and Walkthrough

Projector placement

First, the targeted audience will walk into ADM via the main Glass door entrance. The movement will trigger the motion sensor, which will send signals to the cameras. The cameras will subsequently capture the audience in 4 perspectives, ideally emulating a 360 degrees view. The targeted audience’s frontal, back, and side view will be captured by the 4 cameras respectively. Upon capturing the target’s appearances, it will then trigger off the music player, which will select the appropriate track matching the person’s attire. The speakers will then blare the music selected, while the person walking in will be able to see himself or herself captured on the screen, and on the floor. The screen will be displaying his or her frontal view, while the floor will be depicting a large projection (emulated by 3 projectors) displaying the person’s left profile, backview and right profile from left to right respectively. This gives the impression of both a grand entrance and 360 degree mirror. The attention the person receives from the giant projections and loud music will make him or herself more self conscious, eventually taking closer look at their own appearances.


3rd Part: Identifying types and accompanying soundtracks

We decided not to complicate things too much. Hence, we started out with 8 different types of outfit, and did research about what kind of personalities they would usually emulate. Then, we paired a mini soundtrack to each appearance to match the atmosphere the people give when they stalk in. It is to note that this is merely an example, and that it may not entirely agree with your taste buds. After all, we do not have professional surveys and research undertaken. Should this project be pulled on to a larger scale, more variety of appearances and music should be researched.

First, we have someone with glasses with covered shoes and long hair. The impression given is usually someone who is clever, smart and disciplined. The soundtrack we have selected is Star Wars’ Imperial March.

Next, we have someone with Glasses with covered shoes and short hair. This person usually emulates qualities of being quiet and reserved. The soundtrack we have selected is Harry Potter’s Theme Song.

For someone with no glasses, covered shoes and long hair, we associate qualities of being outgoing, jubilant and cocky with them. The music we paired with these qualities is Ouverture by Carmen.

Someone who has no glasses, covered shoes and short hair is usually adventurous and humorous. Hence, we used the Pirates of the Carribean theme song to portray this.

We identify someone with glasses with non-covered shoes and long hair with being not very sociable yet easy-going at the same time. They are also usually gentle and soft. We decided to go with Studio Ghibli’s Kiki’s Delivery Service’s song; If I’ve Been Enveloped by Tenderness.

Someone who has no glasses with non-covered shoes and long hair are usually more sociable and easy-going. We paired the Tom and Jerry Theme Song with these qualities.

On the other hand, someone with glasses with non-covered shoes and short hair are identified as being determined and firm. We paired the German Song, Guren no Yumiya with it.

Finally, someone who has no glasses, non-covered shoes and short hair is usually sporty and loud. We paired this up with the song Jump Up, Super Start! By Super Mario.

To conclude, paying attention to what we wear is usually something that has been taken for granted a lot of times. Little do people realize how much self-image and appearances matter to our society, especially these days. Hence, we want to bring attention to how impressions are important in socializing with others.


Note Improvements that could be made:

  1. Use actual mirrors instead- more personal touch.
  2. Let people select their own music and play it, while the one the camera identifies also play its own music. Compare differences.

Project 3: Research and Development


For this project, I decided to go with the idea of a Nightmare, since we had to start with waking up and end with going back to sleep. While analyzing the concepts of a nightmare further, I found myself discovering that all my nightmares were usually based off senseless things; sequence that did not make sense, or things that were mundane yet should not happen at all in reality. I wanted to create the same kind of distortion in my work, where the main character cannot comprehend what is going on, yet automatically embraces the situation and somehow knew what to do about it. It is as if his dream is lucid. The environment was meant to be dark, acting as though it is a void. This suffocates the dreamer, and creates more tension and loss in his feelings. This is in reference to my own nightmares, which I notice were soundless to the extent it rings in my ears and makes me feel as though I was drowning in air. A nightmare also has to be haunting; so much that he has to get rid of the root cause in reality to ensure that it will not come back to haunt him.


Image result for Nightmare

Nightmares are lengthy, elaborate dreams with imagery that evokes fear, anxiety, or sadness. The dreamer may wake up to avoid the perceived danger. Nightmares can be remembered upon awakening and may lead to difficulties returning to sleep or even cause daytime distress. Isolated nightmares are normal, but when dreams that bring extreme terror or anxiety recur often they can become a debilitating sleep disorder.


Noh Masks:

Image result for noh mask

Noh Mask (Onna Men)

Noh Mask is classified as the most scariest and creepiest of all Japanese urban legends. Noh Masks are masks that are used in opera performances.

The appearance of these masks is creepy because half side of the face has crying expressions while the other half is smiling, but even scarier is the fact that mask has the power to absorb the negative aura or energy (anger, hatred, anguish) from the owner. After begging the owner to wear the mask, Noh Mask then control and consume the negative aura until the owner begins to rot. The Noh Mask switches the body once the owner is dead but it doesn’t leave the corpse behind. It sticks the old body onto the new body, which makes it the most dangerous legend as well.

When kept in the house, the masks are said to draw in negative energy from the owners till they get completely consumed by the mask itself, and their soul trapped in a different dimension of pain.


Project 3: Sequential Thinking (90 Images)


Project 3: Sequential Thinking (90 Images)

Title: The Cursed Mask Ft. Mark Tan

Location for photos: Pioneer Hall


This is a project about the cursed mask, where Mark wakes up and goes out to get Breakfast. However, on the way back, he spots a weird-looking mask lying on the ground. Despite the mask making him feel uncomfortable, he is nevertheless intrigued by it. As a result, he takes the mask back to his dorm room.

Back in his room, Mark spends some time scrutinizing the mask again. However, its creepiness was haunting him. He decided to put it aside and focus on his studies.

Night falls. Mark is done studying. He glances at the mask beside him again, fearful. Then, he decides to forget about it and go to sleep.

A nightmare happens. Mark finds himself in a completely dark environment. He has no idea where he is, nor what is going on.

When he turns around, he sees the same mask in a distance, unaffected by the darkness. In a flash of darkness, the mask disappears, and then reappears, now closer. This repeats.

Mark panics, and decided to make a break for it. When he turns to his front, he sees that there is a distorted and messy crayon path forming in front of him. Following his instincts, he opts to run down the path; anything to get away from the creepy mask. Whenever he turns back to check, the mask only follows him closer and quicker.

Suddenly, Mark spots a door in the distance. It is the door to his dorm room! He hurries to grip onto the door handle, but not before turning back to check on the mask again.

The mask is right in his face this time; it starts to morph into something scarier and more haunting with each black out. Mark slams the door open and jumps into bed, huddling in a ball, willing himself to believe that it was all a dream.

In his unconsciousness, the mask appears in his vision once again. He is startled awake, and looks out of the window. He realizes that it is now day time, and he has made it through the night. He is utterly relieved. Glancing at the mask on his table, he decides to toss it in to the dustbin, before settling back into a dreamless sleep while smiling to himself.

Project Analysis:

For this project, I decided to go with the idea of a Nightmare, since we had to start with waking up and end with going back to sleep. While analyzing the concepts of a nightmare further, I found myself discovering that all my nightmares were usually based off senseless things; sequence that did not make sense, or things that were mundane yet should not happen at all in reality. I wanted to create the same kind of distortion in my work, where the main character cannot comprehend what is going on, yet automatically embraces the situation and somehow knew what to do about it. It is as if his dream is lucid. The environment was meant to be dark, acting as though it is a void. This suffocates the dreamer, and creates more tension and loss in his feelings. This is in reference to my own nightmares, which I notice were soundless to the extent it rings in my ears and makes me feel as though I was drowning in air. A nightmare also has to be haunting; so much that he has to get rid of the root cause in reality to ensure that it will not come back to haunt him.


Final Project: Evocative Projects- 2 favourite sound installation art


Murmur by French Artists

Murmur by French Artists

The first sound installation art which I really appreciate is Murmur, a video and sound installation which translates sound waves into visuals. The audience can talk into Murmur’s ‘echo chamber’, and a direct visible interaction with the visuals on the walls becomes visible. In a way, the exact sound waves and its configuration can be displayed in a visual form. I feel that it is really unique because it has some sort of a personality in it. Every person’s voice differs whether it is in octave or pitch, which makes every sound wave produced especially unique.


Oscillare; An Interactive Dawn

Oscillare; An Interactive Dawn

The second sound installation art which really inspired me is Oscillare; An Interactive Dawn by Oscar Sol from Electronic Performers. It is an interactive multimedia dance performance. Four accelerometers, a gyroscope and a wireless video camera capture the movements of the dancer, which are used to generate and influence the sound and images on the screen. I really like it a lot because alike the effects of Murmur, every person’s dance and movement of their muscles is different, which makes every sound generated different. It is a presentation where static technology meets the moving human body. The interaction and link between movement, sound and visuals are also very clear, which makes the installation especially incredible.

Project: Image, Sound and Memories- Painting Teddy


Painting Teddy

My story revolves around the theme of Adolescence, where it focuses on my Teddy bear’s memories. It talks about her journey in the place she is most familiar with; the bedroom. The setting takes place at her owner’s University dorm bedroom.

In the past, as a child, the Teddy is a constant best friend for her owner. She is also the ‘protector of the night’, defending her owner from the monsters she is afraid of as a child during night time. They do everything together, rarely apart.

However, her owner grew up. She stopped being afraid of the monsters beneath her bed. She plays with her Teddy less now. She is bogged down by school commitments and studies, and often comes home late, spending long hours outside of her room.

Teddy was still taken to her owner’s University dorm bedroom, but she gets even busier. Teddy misses her owner, and even though she no longer needs to protect her owner from her childhood fears or to entertain her owner, she still wants to do something for her. She wants to make her owner happy even though it does not get to spend much time with her anymore.

This journey revolves around the bedroom, where the Teddy is confined to; she never leaves the bedroom. Yet, it is her whole world because it is where she spends the most time with her owner.


The music I used are a mix of solemn and upbeat music, because as children, we tend to have roller coaster emotions. We can feel happy at one moment, and sad right away at the other. While the Teddy’s owner grows up, the Teddy does not grow up. Hence, she remains stuck in the state of adolescence, where she is just like a child.

The upbeat music represents the child’s mind, where it is happy, active, loud and exciting. The solemn music represents the sadder thoughts the Teddy holds. Aside from the music, there are also verbal speech present in 4 of the tracks. Those are the Teddy’s thoughts in her head. The reason why I did not include speech in all the tracks is because the Teddy does not necessarily think clearly all the time. For example, she may not have been thinking of anything in particular when she climbs off the bed in the second photo.

The Teddy first appears on the bed. Then, she moves to the window, then to the floor and to the wall. Then, her owner appears at the door, and finally, the scene transits back to the bed.

The bed represents the place where she starts from, hence ending at the same place. The window is the only connection aside from the door, where the Teddy can see outside the bedroom. Hence, it is also the place closest her owner whenever she yearns for her.

When the Teddy transits to the floor, that is where things are casual and down-to-earth (literally). Over here, Teddy gets her paws dirty to involve herself in craft work. The floor is where Teddy ‘plays’. As children, we usually play with our toys on the floor as well, hence also hinting how Teddy yearns to play with her owner again (going back to the past where Teddy plays with her owner on the floor as children).

When we transit to the wall, that is the place closest to the door, and by putting the painting there, it expresses Teddy’s eagerness to show her owner her artwork to make her happy.

Finally, at the door, that is where the owner comes home. It is the place dividing the outside world and Teddy’s world. It is the place which indicates when Teddy finally gets to be with her owner again.


Inspired by my Teddy Bears Fullbuster and Laboon who are always there for me. 🙂


Art Science Museum Visit- HUMAN+


Preliminary Read:

  1. What is your initial impression of the work? What emotional response does the work elicit?
  2. What issues or concerns motivated the artist?
  3. How does the work enable you to gathering and build those information?
  4. How does their choice of media and mode of display affect communication?

Secondary Read:

  1. How might the text shift your reading and understanding of the work? Does it relate to your initial impression or does it deviates?
  2. What would you suggest to resolve the communication challenges of the work?

Task 2: Personal Review



This work consists a row of life-like and realistic looking babies encased in glass containers, each baby having a birth defect. A description below each baby describes how the defects can be corrected through medical procedures i.e. human bodily modifications.

My initial impression of the work was about how close to reality it drove, thus making me ponder about issues of ethics- how far can alteration of the human body go to still be deemed acceptable. The artist expresses concern about how far might parents go to give their children an advantage, and under what circumstances justifies modifying a child’s body. While I feel that it is justifiable for the human body to be improved should disabilities be present (since we cannot control birth defects), to alter the body based on personal preference when it does not have disabilities may be pushing it too far. Furthermore, the display is arranged such that the infants are placed as though they are in their hospital cribs. The life-sized babies also exhibit a high sense of realism because they resemble actual new-born infants, which makes us feel that the issues discussed are much closer to us than we realize.

Should I look at the exhibit alone, I may not have figured out about what the artist is trying to bring up about how far should human transfiguration go, but the text helps me to understand that on top of how birth defects are corrected to ensure good health. There could have been more exhibits displaying how perfectly normal babies are genetically modified to have better qualities despite already being normal to begin with.


This work is displayed such that a device made from various materials is fastened onto a mannequin arm, before being encased in a glass container.

My initial impression of this artwork was confusion. I did not understand what it was for, but I figured that it was something which had to do with an electronic device which could trigger something in our human body. In the container fastened to the arm, there was an LG phone and several batteries inside, leading me to think that there should be a command system activated through the phone, which would cause something to happen to the human (since it is attached to an arm).

After reading the text, I realized that the artwork was an emotional prosthetic which causes physical pain to remind the wearer to be alert. It was alike what I had expected. The artist had created this device because of concerns about how people are generally unconcerned about deaths sacrificed in war. During the United-States-led war in Iraq, it resulted in a lot of deaths. While the number of Iraqi deaths is underreported, an exact account of U.S military deaths is broadcast. However, though broadcasted, they were still undermined compared to cases more relatable to the masses, such as kidnapping cases or burglaries. Hence, to bring further attention to the death and violence in war, the I.E.D. is a wearable device which creates physical pain in correspondence to American deaths in war; an electronic solenoid is triggered to drive a needle into the wearer’s arm, drawing blood.

I feel that while idealistic to make everyone worry about the war, it is a justified way of ‘payment’ for the deaths in war. However, concerns about ethics would be brought up when we discuss about who should be exempted- the old or the infants, for example.

While the idea is sound, the presentation of the model could be improved to better show its function. Perhaps, a human reaction could be displayed on the mannequin to suggest discomfort at the death of a soldier.

Reading Assignment: Sound Art


Seminar Questions

  1. What is sound?
  2. How has it been use in culture and society?
  3. What makes it an art?
  4. How does advancement in audio technology affect our sense?

What is Sound?

Sound is an aural component, where vibrations travel through the air or another medium that can be heard when it reaches a person’s or animal’s ear. Due to a surge in exhibitions at visual arts institutions that focuses on sound, it gave birth to ‘Sound Art’, which refers to ‘anything which has or makes sound’, some cases including those which do not. Sound also has a subset of music. In terms of music, Composer Edgard Varese defined music to include all organized sound, whereas John Cage included silence in its definition.

There are three kinds of sound. Multiplying sounds presents three sounds that are recorded. The first sound recorded is what intended to be recorded. The additional sounds recorded are distortions which are usually accurate enough to be compared to the first version. The second set of sounds are the inadvertent sounds of the environment while recording. These sounds are almost insignificant, yet present a new world to be explored when charted. The third sound is the sound of the recording apparatus. Surface noise and channel noise are audible indications of information being transmitted to our ears, otherwise known as the ‘noise-floor’.

How has it been use in culture and society?

According to the article, sound has been used in exhibitions as music, kinetic sculpture, instruments activated by the wind or played by the public, conceptual art, sound effects, recorded readings of prose or poetry, visual artworks which also make sound, paintings of musical instruments, musical automatons, film, video, technological demonstrations, acoustic re-enactments, interactive computer programs which produce sound, and more. Sound has also come to include popular music today. Other than those qualities, sound has also been used to convey messages, be it through speech or through man-made sounds.

What makes it an art?

Sound enables deeper meanings to protrude when conveying messages to the intended audience. Sounds that have previously been almost insignificant, can give birth to new problems and a whole new world waiting to be explored. Sounds in music can also sought to either make one comfortable or uncomfortable through its various qualities, like the tempo and groove of the instrument. Even the lack of sound can help to create a certain mood which may affect its audience. This leads the audience to think deeper and infer, which is alike patronizing a visual art piece.

How does advancement in audio technology affect our sense?

When the phonograph was created, it created three versions of a recorded sound, which included an original, intended recordings and two other recordings with distortions in them. This confuses our perception about which is the actual recorded sound, yet the difference is small enough for us to neglect.

The recording of sound by the phonograph also inspired Theodor Adorno to come out with a new duty surface noise had; the ‘hear-strip’ is the fragile buzz during a film of recorded silence. It was only present for confirming that the film was still running. Its minimal existence is almost insignificant, yet alerts our senses and knowledge deeply.

Our attention is also caught when the bourdon basses, the quiet repetitive figures and pianissimo trilling give us an illusion of a figurative silence, keeping us alert in expectations of a next sound note. Even though the sound may not be real, we still expect the suspense to be broken.

Finally, in popular music, the way music is created through combining different styles of tempos and beats affects our comfort and adoration for the music. Classical music also lets us appreciate a new, idealized acoustic silence when the music is played, allowing us to enjoy the sweetness of the music. Ultimately, the way popular and classical music are mixed and played can directly affect our preferences and level of comfort.


Sound Art: Interesting Finds


The Wave Organ, by Peter Richards and George Gonzales, Exploratorium artists in residence, 1986.

Example #1: The Wave Organ

The Wave Organ on San Francisco Bay is a wave-activated acoustic sculpture. Inspired by artist Bill Fontana’s recordings made of sounds from a vent pipe of a floating concrete block, it is made of carved granite and marble extracted from a demolished cemetery. This structure includes 25 PVC organ pipes and concrete located at various elevations within the area. The rise and fall of the tides would create different sounds.

I really enjoy this installment, because of its calming quality. It makes use of nature to produce ‘music’ that is halfway unintentional, because of how we cannot control the incoming waves. The only thing we can alter are the positioning of the PVC pipes. This creates a calming and relaxing mood, precisely because of how the sounds created are not pre-planned and hence monotonous in a sense. All in all, this gives us a new human experience which comforts us.


Emerging Paradigm by Haroon Mirza, http://www.lissongallery.com/news/haroon-mirza-s-live-performance-emerging-paradigm-makes-london-debut-at-draf, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLg_KtVvCFQ

Example #2: Emerging Paradigm

Haroon Mirza hails from London. He sought to challenge the barriers between sound, noise and music by crossing wires and thinking about his work as a process of manipulating electricity. Within his work, he considers both cultural and scientific research. In 2015, he even won the Calder prize after receiving the Nam June Paik Center Prize.

In my opinion, his music is very intriguing. While it is a music which does not enable you to lay back and relax, it is oddly attractive. However, it nevertheless keeps you tensed up and unable to enter your comfort zone. Mirza makes use of sound waves and tempo patterns which would make one uncomfortable due to its uneven and incompatible frequency. After listening for a long while, it becomes overwhelming to absorb and digest as a piece of music. As a result, I can only accept it as its intended Sound Art experiment.


Project 2: Text and Image Final Artwork



A companion for life by Joey, Project 2 Foundation 4D: Text and Image

In this project, I received a packet of NISSIN Sesame Oil Flavoured Instant Noodles.

Some of the words I identified with this product, as further explored in my previous post, are fast, convenient, tasty, internationally-known and inexpensive. Instant noodles, being tasty and requires so much less effort to prepare, would naturally make one happy because of the lack of energy needed to fill their stomach.

I considered the elements of accessibility, tastiness and how it is easily edible by all ages. I hoped that it represented how it is family-oriented and delicious at the same time, which makes it an ideal and convenient meal for all.

The slogan helped me to explain how instant noodles can be a companion for any ages, and how it can accompany one from the point when he/she is young, to when they are old. It is something that does not grow old regardless of how time has passed.

My advertisement had to be angled towards a large population, hence being open to all ages, genders and races. In other words, it had to be internationally relatable. This ensures that the food is wholly inclusive.

However, walls were hit when matters of ethics were brought up; because instant noodles are unhealthy, and should not be consumed frequently. However, my idea tackles how the instant noodles are so delicious, that you will want to eat it every day without being sick of it.

Additional ideas I could have included included

  1. A big steaming bowl of instant noodles, with 3 hands of the 3 generations reaching towards it.
  2. Subtracting the hand and including instead a child’s food bowl, an adult’s bowl, and an elderly’s antique bowl.

Project 2: Word and Images


NISSIN Instant Noodles, invented by Momofuku Ando

The item I have received is a packet of NISSIN brand Instant Noodles. The following are words I have identified with the Instant Noodles, along with images associated and their connotational and denotational messages.

  1. Cheap

Air Asia Advertisement for cheap flights

Cheap Rubbish Removal Advertisement for Sydney

Denotational: Spend less to save money.

Connotational: More affordable for the poor, because it is inexpensive. Becomes more accessible to all age groups.

  1. Fast

An Image of speed

Tire Buyer Advertisement

Denotational: Saves Time

Connotational: Allows you to do more things with extra time, saves effort. Time can be used to do more meaningful and important things.

  1. Convenient

An image of Digital Payment

NISSAN Leaf advertising campaign

Denotational: Saves effort.

Connotational: Saves energy and time. ‘Extra resources’ can be used to do more things. Less effort is needed for travelling, cooking, or preparation. Handy.

  1. Filling

Florida Oranges Advertisement

Little girl with big burger or sandwich inside mouth

Denotational: Satisfies your hunger.

Connotational: You will not go hungry easily, and can save money on food since Instant Noodles are cheap and filling. It can be spent on other items.

  1. Japan/Chinese/Asian

Advertisement for Nissin Dombei Noodles

Advertisement for sake

Denotational: Origins of NISSIN Instant noodles.

Connotational: Authentic, and leads us to explore or be more interested in Asian culture.

  1. Portable

Advertisement for Mac

Advertisement for General Electric

Denotational: Easy to bring around.

Connotational: Easy to cook anywhere and carry anywhere from place to place. Do not have to worry about taking up too much space as well.

  1. Freshly-cooked, hot

Advertisement for bread in TESCO

Curtis Tea Advertisement

Curtis Tea Advertisement

Denotational: Newly made, fresh to eat to savour the best state.

Connotational: Suitable for cold times and to warm the body up.

  1. Easy

Bpay Advertisement

Advertisement for Minute Rice

Denotational: Less effort and direction to cook.

Connotational: Accessible to a large range of ages, because it is not difficult to cook. Increases accessibility to consumers.

  1. Tasty

Image of a delicious turkey

Advertisement for BRABD Sandwich Cookies

Denotational: Nice to eat.

Connotational: Delicious for many consumers, they will not be bored of it as easily. Longer-lasting.

  1. International/Worldwide

AT&T Advertisement

AT&T Advertisement

Vodafone Advertisement

Denotational: Well-known worldwide.

Connotational: International branding. Everyone knows the common brands. Shared culture, shared sense of identity. Bonding.