Tag Archives: research

Quantum Theory Research & Moodboard



Amongst the many concepts that quantum theory displayed, some of them which I identified were quantum mechanics, quantum cosmology, quantum entanglement and superposition.

Quantum mechanics: Quantum mechanics is the body of scientific laws that describe the wacky behaviour of photons, electrons and the other particles that make up the universe. It also describes the forces of nature at the smallest scales.

Quantum cosmology: Quantum cosmology is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the Universe. This approach attempts to answer open questions of classical physical cosmology, particularly those related to the first phases of the universe. It also links to the roots of mythological beliefs from many cultures.

Quantum entanglement: Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other, even when the particles are separated by a large distance.

Superposition: Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together (“superposed”) and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.
– being in different states at once
– being at more than one place at the same time


For this particular concept, I focused on an idea rather abstract. When I was researching about quantum theory, I chanced upon, quantum cosmology, where it states that it attempts to answer open questions of classical physical cosmology, particularly those related to the first phases of the universe. So I thought, what were the first phases of the universe? It turns out that many cultures had the belief that the beginning of the universe and birth of life started from an egg, hence “the world egg/cosmic egg”. As absurd as it sounds right now, it was the belief of several cultures during the primeval times.

As this concept contradicts modern ways of defining the birth of the universe, I want to highlight the juxtaposition and duality in the attitudes towards evolution – myth vs. math. As it is also rather ironic that something so organic, the blooming of life, is now replaced by mathematical equations, scientific theories and hypothesises.

“What is the form of the universe? The questions of what the universe is, where it came from, what it evolves towards, and how it relates to human existence—are now answered in terms of morphology as they arise from Plato’s forms and Sheldrake’s work, but mostly by genetics itself. “The Cosmic Egg” introduces a “mechanics of form”, where every form (natural or manmade) has a minimum and a maximum, including the universal form, and where form can thus be mathematically defined. Now, all our ancient questions are quite easily answered, unsolvable paradoxes understood, the ultimate puzzle laid out to show the universe as organismic and as intimately relating to the human form! The “Cosmic Egg” unifies physics with biology, with metaphysics, with legend, and all other human observation about reality. It spells the end of mechanistic models of reality, and the beginning of a truly meaningful science that is principally the study of life. The “Cosmic Egg” unifies our existing paradoxes by offering the simplest possible reason for existence itself, the simplest of all possible truths.”

– by Fritz Blackburn


Upon researching the different cultures that have a common belief of the cosmic egg, 2 cultures that piqued my interest was the Greek and Polynesian mythology. Although both believe that the start of the universe began with an egg, Greek mythology was about the creation of Gods and Goddesses. Whereas, the Polynesian mythology’s focused on Vari, the female spirit which symbolises growth and feminity. A parallel seen in the Polynesian mythology is basically birth in human beings – the evolution of human beings and growth in human. The universe is just a larger scale of that very same concept of evolution and growth.

The Cosmic Egg
Juxtaposition and duality in the attitudes towards the universe’s evolution – myth vs. math

I feel that these videos share a certain visual quality that reminds me of the organic yet, mathematical aspect of the universe’s evolution



This is the general mood board for the first concept. However, the Greek and Polynesian mythology both have different styles. The anatomy as motifs and more organic forms would be more suitable if I were to go ahead with the Polynesian mythology as the theme. On the other hand, Sonia Lazo’s illustrations are more majestic, whimsical and playful at the same time, suitable for the intepretations of the Greek mythology.



For this concept, I mainly focused on superposition and entanglement as I feel that they epitomize the quantum theory. The multiverse is a hypothetical group of multiple universes including the universe in which we live. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, and the physical laws and constants that describe them. The different universes within the multiverse are called “parallel universes”, “quantum realities”, or “alternative universes”.

There are five plausible scientific theories suggesting we live in a multiverse:

1. Infinite Universes
In a way, a multitude of universes exists next to each other in a giant patchwork quilt of universes. [Visualizations of Infinity: A Gallery]

2. Bubble Universes
In some of these bubble universes, the laws of physics and fundamental constants might be different than in ours, making some universes strange places indeed.

3. Parallel Universes
Another idea that arises from string theory is the notion of “braneworlds” — parallel universes that hover just out of reach of our own.

4. Daughter Universes
The theory of quantum mechanics, which reigns over the tiny world of subatomic particles, suggests another way multiple universes might arise. Quantum mechanics describes the world in terms of probabilities, rather than definite outcomes. And the mathematics of this theory might suggest that all possible outcomes of a situation do occur — in their own separate universes. For example, if you reach a crossroads where you can go right or left, the present universe gives rise to two daughter universes: one in which you go right, and one in which you go left.

5. Mathematical Universes
Scientists have debated whether mathematics is simply a useful tool for describing the universe, or whether math itself is the fundamental reality, and our observations of the universe are just imperfect perceptions of its true mathematical nature. If the latter is the case, then perhaps the particular mathematical structure that makes up our universe isn’t the only option, and in fact all possible mathematical structures exist as their own separate universes. (https://www.space.com/18811-multiple-universes-5-theories.html)

“If space-time goes on forever, then it must start repeating at some point, because there are a finite number of ways particles can be arranged in space and time.

So if you look far enough, you would encounter another version of you — in fact, infinite versions of you. Some of these twins will be doing exactly what you’re doing right now, while others will have worn a different sweater this morning, and still, others will have made vastly different career and life choices.”

This excerpt was really interesting to me and it shows the infinite possibilities of the universe. Relating back to quantum theory, it also resembles the superposition and entanglement concepts.

From 1:12 min onwards

Superposition and entanglement really reminded me of the recent spiderman movie, where they reveal several spidermen from different universes, all taking up different states and form.

This movie, Coherence, is a movie that draws inspiration from the superposition and entanglement concept – also, Schrödinger’s cat. In the movie, 8 friends reunite at a dinner party when a comet passes and they must deal with strange occurrences following the comet sighting. The friends realize the other house is an alternate of theirs and met copies of themselves. (to continue, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherence_(film))


For my second concept, the mood board consists more of geometrical and warped elements, vectors, dimensional objects. To express the concept of superposition and entanglement, and the multiverse, I feel that the elements must be similar, yet portraying different “states”.



Hyperessay Artist Selection: Tim Murray Browne

Tim Murray-Browne is an artist and creative coder from the UK creating interactive installations and performances. His work explores how our ideas and identity relate to our lived experience. It includes ensembles of bespoke musical instruments performed by the audience, audiovisual landscapes generated by the movement of a dancer, interactive light and sound sculptures that respond to the viewer’s position and immersive one-on-one performances to transform an individual’s memories into calligraphic images. It has been exhibited around the world at venues including Tate Modern, The Victoria & Albert Museum and Berkeley Art Museum.

In Murray-Browne’s website, he discusses his practices and ideas further from an interview with Create Hub.

“This is what draws me to working with interactive technology so much — particularly when it involves the moving body with music and abstract imagery. Music and dance have this strange way of saying so much while also saying nothing. The abstraction lets us explore our human activities together before we get focused on the specific personal details of our lives. In some sense, you can reduce human experience down to this dialogue between what we do and what we sense. Mixing interaction, music and dance lets you create an abstract microcosm of experience. This is a space where you can explore this complex relation between identity and environment.”

Some thoughts:
There are many artists who work with technology and media. However, Murray-Browne’s works stood out to me as many of his works and idea explores the relation of the moving body and sounds. His works show an immersive experience where people can participate and connect, even if they are physically apart in the space. Also, through his works, there are many elements similar to interactive works in the past – exemplifying how these ideas of interactivity and connectivity have influenced contemporary artists like Tim Murray-Browne.



02 Locale: Research

To start off project 2, here’s the research I’ve conducted, primary and secondary, to find out more about my chosen site: Tiong Bahru.



01 Site Observations

Firstly, to know more about the place itself, I visited the site and explored around Tiong Bahru. I went ahead to observe things up close which I normally don’t, such as, the architecture, the shops, the housing areas, the courtyards outside the Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) flats an even the bomb shelter located at the old estate.

As I walked around the area, I took down some notes using the POEMS framework; a design thinking framework useful for ethnographic research.


02 Ethnographic Interviews

Other than observations, I interviewed the people around the area – residents and passers-by. To obtain more holistic information through the interviews, I ensured that I interviewed a range of people, especially from teens to elderly as I felt that their varying responses were key to finding good insights about this place.

Here’s a sample of the interview questions.




As for the secondary research, I looked up useful information which substantiates the information that I have gathered through the primary research. I found reliable information from government websites, such as the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), the Tiong Bahru: Heritage trail by the Singapore National Heritage Board and the Straits Times.

Source: Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)

Singapore Improvement Trust flats in the Tiong Bahru estate. (c. 1953. Image from National Museum of Singapore.)

Singapore Improvement Trust flats in the Tiong Bahru estate. (c. 1953. Image from National Museum of Singapore.)Singapore Improvement Trust flats in the Tiong Bahru estate. (c. 1953. Image from National Museum of Singapore.)

From these sources, I have found out many interesting facts and the rich history of Tiong Bahru regarding the estate. Information such as when was the first block built and who were the people living in the block and even the following developments. Basically, Tiong Bahru’s timeline as an estate.  One of the most iconic blocks of the estate to me was the one with a purpose-built air raid shelter, which I visited during my site visit as well. I was pretty surprised when I found it as it was really in the middle of all the flats. Some interviewees also pointed out the bird singing corner (which I couldn’t find during this visit). Without getting to see it, I just googled it to know more about it. (But, in the end, I went back to Tiong Bahru again to take a look at things which I have missed out, like the bird singing corner.)



Research Critique 02 – The Third Space

To me, the third space is a space where realities are able to coincide due to technological advancements. It can also be a combination of a physical space and a remote space, where time and space is not relevant.

In this space, there are endless possibilities and many known boundaries are collapsed because of new innovations and a greater use of technology. People can supposedly interact with one another; yet, not being physically present. It allows us to experience the remote space on a greater level, incorporating our senses into this experience; sight, hearing, sound, and (seemingly) touch.

In Randall Packer’s article, The Third Space, he mentioned, it is the pervasiveness of distributed space and the degree and myriad of ways in which we are constantly connected. And from this ubiquitous state of shared presence we have come to inhabit an entirely new way of seeing via a fracturing of perception.

The term, shared presence, was what I felt, a reflection of telematic performances; the ability to feel one’s presence but not being physically there.

In my micro-project 3, Tele-Drift, Jia Ying and I created “Draw Together”. Draw Together allows participants to draw with someone else regardless of their location as long as they have a canvas. As they draw, they have to achieve their end goal together; to complete the drawing by contributing half/part of it.

In this project, there were no location boundaries and all we needed was a canvas and a live video function. Despite being in different locations, the involvement of more senses beyond sight and sound, the consistent first-person perspective of the canvas and the real-time aspect of the live video function created closeness and intimacy between the artists. While drawing, the object that is representative of the “third” body is the canvas itself. Although Jia Ying and I were not able to coordinate our hand gestures while we were drawing, I felt that the canvas spoke for us as the “third” body as we were interacting through pen and paper.

In Maria Chatzichristodoulo’s Cyberformance article, Paul Sermon mentioned, “The ability to exist outside of the users own space and time is created by an alarmingly real sense of touch that is enhanced by the context of the bed and caused by an acute shift of senses in the telematic space.” About his Telematic Dreaming (1993) performance.

Amongst all the telematic performances, I felt that Telematic Dreaming prevailed as the most impactful and intimate piece of work. In comparison with my tele-drift project, with the context of the canvas (vs the bed), it was evident that having an intimate object was more impactful.

03 Ego: Artist Research

To start off this project, I would be mostly looking into how these artists used colours and put them together harmoniously.

Vanessa McKeown

McKeown photographs ordinary daily objects and manipulates them into quirky photo illustrations. The colour schemes used were mostly pastel as it gives off a softer look. The lightheartedness in the photos is a perfect combination of the quirky and fun interpretations of the objects.

Other than the use of colours, my illustrations were inspired by her as well. My overarching concept would be to make ordinary, daily objects relatable to my experiences and memories, which will make up my equation of “Me+Environment=______”




Tom Haugomat

Tom Haugomat is an illustrator based in Paris, France. The use of light and a pastel cooler palette in Tom’s work is reminiscent of American illustration from the 1950’s and ’60s.

The evident use of light and colours made his work seem beautifully in harmony, whether is it using shades and tints, or analogous and complementary colours.



Malika Favre

Malika Favre is a French graphic designer and her distinct and often very sexy style has made her one of the world’s most sought-after. Her works are bold, minimalist, and instantly recognisable.











Overall, I found these artists extremely helpful in terms of visualizing how colours can be utilized to create a certain mood or to set a contrast in a composition. Although not all of their works fall under the typical colour rule, as some might be split complementary etc, it is interesting to see how these colours can be put together harmoniously.


02 Forrest Gump: Artist Research

To start off project 2, I’m going to share about some artists or art movements that inspire me.


Salvador Dali (1904-1989), a Spanish surrealist, is a highly imaginable individual who enjoys indulging in unusual and grandiose behaviour. It is said that he evoked his dreams and hallucinations in unforgettable images, as seen in many of his works.

The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali.

Rene Magritte (1898-1967), a Belgium surrealist, is known for his witty and provoking images. He depicts ordinary objects in an unusual context, challenging the observer’s preconditional perceptions of reality.

The Therapist (1937) by Rene Magritte.

Both surrealist exemplifies the great lengths that creativity can reach. We normally perceive an ordinary object as normal and dull looking. But, having to challenge our perception would be the next step to obtaining new and interesting interpretations of the same object – which is what I look forward to for this project.




Russian constructivism is a movement that was active from 1913 to the 1940s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements.

I found this artistic style effective and aesthetically pleasing to the eye. As mentioned, having new and different interpretations of an object would be what I am looking forward to and utilizing basic elements would create a sense of unity and harmony in my designs. There would be a balance of flat basic elements and detailed threshold/halftone images, thus, neutralizing the complexity.

Other than Russian constructivism, I have also chanced upon a similar art movement which inspires me.



Suprematism focuses on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.

Both movements mentioned above are interested in the abstract design and the self-containment of a specific work, however, because Russian Constructivism was acknowledged after the Revolution in 1917, it carries an overtly political manifesto as well as a practical application of the arts for worldwide revolution.

Personally, I felt that these artists and art movements served as a really good starting point for this project. It shows a great play of ideas and how simple shapes can be translated into an artwork.




Modernism and Russian Constructivism

01 My Line is Emo: Mark Marking Research

As an introduction to mark making this week, we did several basic mark making using markers and pencils. We were also advised to conduct research on iconic mark making artists. These are just some interesting artists which I wish to highlight and learn something from.


I did some of my research in my visual journal as well.