Category Archives: My Work


Maria Chatzichristodoulou on telematic

Maria Chatzichristodoulou also known as Maria X  broadly defines telematic as a use of a telecommunication network to establish links between two different places at the same time.

Maria then began highlighting key art movement the Fluxes during 1960 to the 1970s. Some of the key work she highlighted was Hole in Space by Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz, where they took telematic communication to the unsuspecting public. There the public encounters video live streaming for the first time in two different spaces, Los Angeles and New York City. This performance leads to both planned and unplanned meetings between the coast. Hole in space is celebrated as the most successful telematic performance in the 80s. Hole in space is a great example leveraging on the Third space where the distance between Los Angeles and New York City was suddenly served.

Another work that she highlighted was Paul Sermon’s Telematic dreaming. In this work, the artist body is projected onto a bed, where he invites the public to lie down with him and interact with his projected image. in this work, the telematic space is longer a screen but on the physical and intimate environment the bed. According to the artist, the ability to exist out of the user own space and time and space creates an alarming sense of touch. it is almost as if the projected image is real. Many audiences avoid sitting on the projected image as if the “body” is real. Maria X also highlight the ethical concern of telematic abuse where the audience abused the projected body in one of the runs.

Maria X then ties telematic communications together by drawing references to modern uses of telematic communications. Where telematic communication has permeated our daily lives without us knowing. applications such as Skype, Facebook.

The third space is a fluid matrix of potentiality and realizable connections to the most far-reaching remoteness. – Randall Packer

The third space refers to the imaginary space binding two remote physical locations together through the use of telematic communications. This fluidity of the third space is well embodied in the above performance art. Before the invention of the third eye the camera, the image was tied to a specific place and location. Along with the improvement of telematic communication, the physical space is now liberated. The two performance art above overcooked geographical distances and linked the two locations together in the third space.

Annie Abraham telematic performance art

Afterwards, Annie Abraham does a performance art with Antye Greie, Hoong Hao, Soyung Lee, Igor Stromajer, Helen Varley Jasmine and Daniel Pinheiro. For this performance, Annie created a protocol which can be found here!

I found it amazing how their voices overlap while the keep in-sync with each other despite being in totally different spaces around the globe. Having done performance art together with Annie, I truly understand how difficult it is. In our run in the classroom, I was constantly, making eye contact with Yue Ling and belle trying to coordinate our words and actions. In addition, Professor Packer was also directing us with visual cues.

phase 1

phase 2
phase 3
phase 4

Annie also reviewed later that none of the performer revealed their political statements before the performance. This truly expresses the interactiveness of the performers where anything can happen and they are just reacting to each other.

Blast theory

Blast theory was founded by Matt Adams, a  pioneer in creating interactive art to explore social and political questions, placing audience members at the centre of his work.


“Entrants paid £10 to enter a lottery in the hope of being kidnapped. Ten finalists were chosen at random and put under surveillance. Two winners – Debra Burgess, a 27 year old Australian working as a temp and Russell Ward, a 19 year old from Southend working in a 24 hour convenience store – were snatched in broad daylight and taken to a secret location for 48 hours. The process was broadcast live onto the internet. Online visitors were able to control the video camera inside the safehouse and communicate live with the kidnappers.” – Blast theory

This performance art was a commentary on two events the rise of lottery culture and the Spanner Operation in the United Kingdom. A group of homosexual men were convicted of assault on bodily harm for their involvement in consensual sadomasochism over a period of ten years. The court argued that consent is not a valid legal defence for wounding and harming the body. This conviction sparked controversy on how the state justification of controlling one person body in private scenarios. Kidnap address this issue head-on, acting out a kidnapping on the premise of consent.

Another key point explored by the performance was power relationship. How power was disclosed to people, the audience and the performance. The audience (dominant) in this case was given absolute power as they had the ability to interact and survey the “victims”, through panning zooming and tilting the camera found in the room. On the other hand, the “victims” (submissive)  were left in the dark as they had no contact with other.

Because once when you put a bag on your head it all becomes very real … I Don’t know whats going to happen. – Deborah participant of Kidnap.

The line between pretence and reality is blurred in this performance. The isolation, plus the fear, cause the “victims” to lose the sense of time and awareness. I was really shocked by this project. I cannot fathom being left alone in a confined space for more than a few hours. Studies have shown that prolong isolation may have damaging effects on the social capability as well as the mental health of a person. Luckily there was a phycologist on site at all times.

In addition, I find it intriguing how consent is given, but the Participants still feel threatened by the reality of it. This lead to me thinking if consent was given in the beginning, but the participants regret their decision and want out. Is the kidnap still justifiable through consent? For me the idea of consent is very vague, is silence consent? or is Yes consent? The idea of consent is still being debated today in rape cases. All in all, I believe that this is a very successful work highlighting the notion of consent.

Telematic Embrace

So for this mini project, professor Packer had us to think about negotiation, on collaboration, where the class sync up their actions and create a composite image. I had to sit out on this project, as adobe connect was not working on my laptop.

Creating the composite image was hard as seen by the constant exclamation in the rooms. Co-ordination for the different letter from required flexibility and communication.

The one composite image that I really love was when the class started pulling object out with the same color. Everyone in the class has such drastically different personality, but to see everyone pull a object out with the same color was very interesting. The object varied so greatly depending on the personality of the person. For example when the class had to pull out a pink object some of the girls pulled out pencil cases, wallets, make up, phones but En Cui, didn’t had a object. from that one image you could almost see our personalities in that picture.

However the part that I found the most intriguing was that, we were all in the first space, but we chose to ignore it and enter the third space. And even in the third space the arrangement of each person is jumbled up, thus distorting the distance between partner in the first space. for example Francesca maybe sitting next to Jocelyn, but in the third space, Jocelyn and Francesca are on the opposite ends.


Micro project 2: Telescroll

For this project, I was paired up together with Jocelyn, who happens to be my junior college classmate and now hall mate. Okay back ground Info time~

Cutting the long story short, Jocelyn and I met in Nanyang Junior college in 2015 as we shared the same form class. Both of us belong to a close knitted class called the AEP ( Art Elective Program), which played a major part of outlives. So we were in the same class for two years and then now we are classmates in your class again. (yay~)

Upon receiving this project we thought of the places that we could possibly walk, we wanted to keep it simple and kept it in NTU (yes we are lazy). We wanted to express  the idea of how our lives may  briefly intersect, but then separate once again. This idea was inspired by a conversion we had about friendship and our hopes for this friendship to continue even outside ADM. We have lost contact with many of our old classmates after leaving school, which greatly saddens us.  Then we thought of our journey to school. you see me and jocelyn live in the same hall; but the way we travel to school is very different. i prefer to walk to ADM cutting through hall 8,9,10 and 11, however Jocelyn preferred to walk around the halls or take the red bus to North spine and then walk down. We always have a mini debate on which route to take. I found it interesting how we were both traveling to the same place but with a different route. This is very similar to our relationship’ both me and Jocelyn came from a similar background, but our personalities are vey different.

Our route

So to make sure that the journey would take 15 minutes, we timed the journey it took for us to reach school via cutting through the halls and walking around it. The journey took about 13 minutes each.

Our sequence of action during the walk

I begin planning with Jocelyn on the content, on what we should do during the walk. At first i wanted to remain silent but soon realized that it was the best or smartest idea as the whole live feed would be extremely silent, extremely boring. Jocelyn suggest that we have a daily mundane conversation, about school, plans after class , but we felt that it didn’t value add to the project. we wanted to focus not the fact that we both had the same destination but have different methods or ideology. I then proposed to having a debate (different routes) ending us coming to a similar conclusion (similar destination). But, I soon realized that neither of us is intelligent enough to hold a debate without sounding ignorant… Then we thought of using parallelism where one of us would have a delayed reaction (for example if jocelyn look to the left and turn around i would do the same action with a delay of 10 seconds) but after using this gimmick for 5 minutes it would get boring. Building on the idea, Jocelyn suggested that we passed each other notes questioning our past, present and future. We decided to pass the note is: through the screen. If i was on the left side of the screen, i would pass the paper to the right side, where Jocelyn would pluck it out of frame and bring it into view. We also decided to change phone every time we meet. (downstair outside the halls, and at the zebra crossing outside ADM). This symbolizes that no matter a meeting is, we are able to influence each other.

Jocelyn set of question for me
My set of question for Jocelyn


So things that went wrong …

We faced a few problem in the first live video. Firstly you can clearly see that I forgot to stream in a landscape position… Secondly, we walked way too fast in the video. We did the first shot in the afternoon at 5pm for better lightning, but that also meant more humans. while we were doing the live feed, many stared at us and gave us weird side glances. That… made us very self-conscious and so our pace increased so quickly that the whole journey took us only 10ish minutes? Thirdly, our message passing thing didn’t really work. so the initial plan was for me to pass Jocelyn a question slip, where she will receive it on her side. But I forgot to “pass” her the question. so… the question intended for her were answered by me. Fourthly, we forgot to pass the phones back to each other upon meeting at the zebra crossing outside ADM. Fifthly, in general my live feed was very shaky and unstable due to my aching arms from holding out the camera.

unstastified with the end result, we wanted to do a retake. But lady luck wasn’t on our side, my phone was running out of battery at 17% (technically I could charge my phone via a portably charger, but I carry a iPhone 7… I CANT CHARGE AND HAVE EARPIECES ON AT THE SAME TIME!) and we were losing day light; so we had to postpone the retake the next day.

Things that went right 🙂

By this time both of us were use to the stares, so we managed to walk slower and shot more steadily this time. The note passing went fairly well, despite the lack of space in framing.

Forrest Gump Alice in Wonderland: “I don’t know” Alice said. the cat replied:” then it doesn’t matter.”

For this quote, I’m going to focus on the uncertainty of paths.

Design 1

Firstly, I tried to show crossroads by giving her a signboard which gives her two directions to go. The reason why it says Patterson road and orchard road is because I took it directly off the internet without changing anything.

Design 2

the second I idea I had was to put Alice in a maze and bombard her with signs and direction. however, this didn’t work out too well as there isn’t a lot of places where I could superimpose the signs on. Moving on.

Design 3

For this design, I decided to go for a literal crossroad. I wanted to make it bizarre so I reflected the image vertically. I tried to conceptualize it to my life and decided to change it to JC and Polytechnique a crossroad most students in Singapore face.

Design 4

I decided to use the setting of the story: the forest as a background. I wanted to use a school girl wearing a pinafore as Alice, but I couldn’t find a suitable image. so I replaced her with a Japanese school girl.

Design 5
Design 6

In these two designs, i tried to incorporate the Cheshire cat more subtly. the first one I used the silhouette of the Cheshire cat. I think the second one is more successful as it is more subtle and less in your face.

Design 7

Similarly, I tried to distort the image by introducing halftones with threshold. however, this didn’t work out too well, as it does not convey depth at all. it made the background looks flat instead.

Design 8

I tried to distort the image further by titling it. however, like the previous few designs, it lacks the context of Alice in Wonderland and the design is too complicated. furthermore, the designs do not look retro but futuristic instead.

Design 9

I tried to make it look more retro. and obviously, in this, i failed again very badly.

Design 10

taking Mi Mi advice I begin searching for comics and illustrations. I found a forest shaped in an “O” and decided to throw in the elements of the signboard, Alice and the cat inside. while I finally did succeed in getting the visual language right. I really didn’t like it. anybody could have thought of this. Meh, just no…

Design 11

For this design, I was very inspired tarot cards and that’s why I used the fancy borders. again the border worked against me and stole the attention away from the main object. In addition, I felt that the design could have been developed further.

Design 12

I chanced upon this photo of the forest while searching the web, then I had a sudden inspiration to extend the bottom and make use of the negative space. as there is a very high contrast, a great amount of emphasis is being placed on Alice. In addition, the background acts as a border framing the main subject up nicely.

Forrest Gump: Mulan – “The most beautiful and rare flower blooms in adversity”

For this quote, I will be focusing on the keywords of beauty and flower

Design 1
Design 2
Design 3
Design 4

for the first four designs, I literally tried to combine a flower and a female together. and it didn’t work well. firstly the contrast is too high. Secondly, there is absolutely no context of Mulan here. Third, the visual language is wrong like the previous few draft. Fourth I just didn’t like it. moving on.

Design 5
Design 6

I tried to make a collage of flowers and the warrior equipment and soldiers in these two designs. However, it did not work out very well as the elements seem very individual and not well gelled together.

Design 7

Using the previous idea as a stepping stone, I tried to incorporate the elements together to form a flower shape. But meh I didn’t like it at all.

Design 8

For this designs, i tried to incorporate parts of the flower into the warrior body as if the flowers bloomed from the warrior. for those that were in his body I used threshold, while for the parts of the flowers that are sticking out, I used halftones to give it a softer look. I wanted to express that Mulan had both sides of her; the feminine and the badass.

Design 9

For this design, I incorporated a lotus for the flower. I chose the lotus as it is a symbol of purity. There is a Chinese saying that the lotus is a very pure flower, despite from growing in the muds. I thought that this flower reflected Mulan’s personality and this quote very well. As much as I love this design, there warrior silhouette that I added as a mask layer in photoshop isn’t showing very well. in addition, the design is too futuristic. I was also told to draw inspirations directly from the quotes keywords instead.

Design 10

For this design, I was partially inspired by tarot cards and hence I gave it an elaborate framing. however, it worked for me as it took the attention away from my main subject.i decided to encapsulate the flower in a black circle to draw the focus onto the flower. However, I have neglected one of the major keywords: adversity.

Design 11

incorporating the flower element above I decided to add and show the warrior side of her with a Samurai mask. But it is still too plain and I decided to open the design.

Design 12
Design 13

For these two designs, I tried to use diagonal composition where I placed her warrior side on the right and her feminine side on the left. As I couldn’t find a suitable Chinese battle helmet, I had to substitute it with a Japanese Samurai head mask. I used skulls to further accent her bad ass side. For Mulan’s feminine side, I used flowers. I decided to use halftone for the flowers to give it a softer feeling while I used threshold on the other side to give it more of a harsher and crude texture.

Forrest Gump Mulan: I can wear a mask and fool the world. but I can’t fool my heart

This quote is taken from a verse in reflection, where Mulan laments how she could be the perfect bride. For this quote, I would be focusing on the words mask and heart, while showing a dual image.

Design 1

For this design, I used two gender fluid models. the one on the left is a female who models male clothes and the one on the left is a male who model female clothes. I decided to use a genderfluid model as they challenge and break gender norms today just like how Mulan did. I used a smoky effect to fade their faces off into the distance to show how they are lost like how Mulan was at this stage of her life.

Design 2

Similarly, this design uses the same concept as the previous one, but this one there is an afterimage of a little girl in the smoke. it’s like his lingering thoughts of needing to conform to society views.

Design 3
Design 4

In this two designs, I thought I would create some sort of mask, by removing parts of their faces with flowers. I decided to use flowers as it embodies what Mulan tries to be but cannot achieve.

Similar to the previous few designs, I was told that it was too futuristic and does not contain the historical Chinese look that Mulan had. In addition, I had to incorporate more elements from the movie.

Design 5
Design 6

For these two design, i decided to draw my motif from a Chinese opera mask especially from the changing face performance. I like how the Chinese mask is very expressive with distinct emotions such as anger and happiness. I wanted to portray Mulan putting on many facades with the different masks.

Design 7
Design 8
Design 9
Design 10

For the next few designs, I wanted to emphasize how Mulan kept some parts of herself hidden. so I used a curtain to express that she has kept her true self (the warrior side) hidden from her family. I wanted to have a woman caged on the other side of her face. however, I had a very hard time finding images to suit the second half of the face. In the first one, I used a female bounded by the flower. I wanted to show that Mulan is actually being chained by the feminine ideals which are represented by the flowers. however, the image is too small and blurry to be seen properly. in the second one, i used a pair of hands. For this, while the image could be seen very clearly, I couldn’t fit the hands in properly. if I fit both hands it would be too small. if I enlarged it, only one hand can be seen and the message is hindered. so I decided to settle with the last image. it is a halftone image of a girl being locked in a cage. as the picture isn’t very clear I used the eraser tool to erase part of the face to make the bars come out. As all of the images I could find is problematic, I had to settle for the less evil so I picked the last design as my final.

Forest Gump Alice in Wonderland: Sometimes I believe in as many as six impossible things before breakfast

I wanted to focus on the setting and the things that Alice counted during her battle with the Jabberwocky.

Design 1

For the first design, I focus on the setting where Alice had tea with the mad hatter and March Hare. I tried to emulate the bizarreness of the teapot by juxtaposing the march hare head onto a teapot. Inspired by the hatter’s love for eccentric hats, I gave him a hat made up of cupcake

for the second design, I was inspired by the things that Alice counted during her battle with the Jabberwocky. the three elements that I have incorporated is: a cake that makes you grow smaller, a drink that makes you bigger and cats can talk. For the Cheshire cat, I used a siamese cat because it look rather unusally from a common house cat. I separated his body into halg to illustarte his ability to appear and dissapera out of nowhere. However, i saw told that the elements do no gell well with each other.

Design 3

For this design, i went back to focusing on the scene where Alice was at the tea party. I decided to incorporate a more bizarre feeling into the design. I placed Alice and the March Hare together as they peer out of the pot. The design wasn’t executed really well, as the contrast was too high. Also, I was told to focus on the keywords such as “breakfast” more while bringing in more context of Alice in Wonderland where I brought in the actual character into my work.

Design 4

Heading the advice of Mi Mi where I had to incorporate more of the movie context and the keywords, I decided to focus on the word “breakfast”. I also decided to focus on the impossible. I tried to bring that aspect out by making it bizarre, weird or paradoxical. In this design, I decided to manipulate with the scale to make it bizarre. but I felt that I was playing too safe in this design. it is just not bizarre enough.

Design 5
Design 6

For design 5 and 6, I had this grand plan of having a top view of Alice swimming in cereal while she floats in a bathing suit with a flamingo float. so I had to substitute I do with a front shot of a cereal bowl with Alice sitting inside the cereal. I chose cereal as it is a very common breakfast food for many. but I felt that the elements were rather individual and aren’t gelling well with each other.

Design 7

So I settled for this design. where I split the paper into half. The first half of it is a distorted checkerboard. with Alice and an apple superimposed on it. I chose a chessboard as I felt that Alice in Wonderland concept was very much like a game. i also chose the apple as it is a convinent breakfast food for all. On the other side, i used a backdrop of panckaes and scones as a background. alice is given a crosant for a head as it is a very common bread in frnace.


What is sound?

Sound can include many things. some of which includes music kinetic sculpture instruments conceptual art sound effect and much more. Edgard Varese defines sound as all organize sounds. In a performance piece 443, he demonstrated that silence is also a sound. On the other hand, Paul DeMarinis argue that there are three parts to any sound recorded.The first sound is the sound that we try to record with a bit of distortion. The second sound refers to the sound of the environment. The third one refers to the whirring mechanics of the recording machine.

How has it been used in culture and society?

Sound art has been widely incorporated into the arts. by 1955 sound arts have almost become an art fad. It is widely adapted to music, kinetic sculptures, instruments played by the wind or the general public and more.  surface noise is often employed as the backdrop for continued attention and suspended belief. In the earlier times, the sound was used to create and emphasize on the silence.

What makes it an art?

Paul Dementist that that sound art has been loosely categories into the visual arts.  Similarly, as it lacks a purpose. I strongly believe that art has to have a purpose. Art is a reflection of reality. I feel that arts should offer a new perspective and probe the audience’s thoughts and feelings. Similarly, in traditional art, the meaning of the painting does not lie within the medium but on the subject matter of the work, unlike sound art where the medium of the meaning.

How does advancement in audio technology affect our sense?’

Advances in the audio technology allow us to normalise, compress and fill every moment with sounds. This results in us rejecting the silence, and the surface noise. This has resulted in many scholars opposing the classical and academical circles elevating silence to the highest pedestal in sound. This can be seen clearly in john cage 433, where he invited a musician to “play” a piano for 4 min and 33 seconds before leaving the stage. For John Cage, this is a composition of the varrying lenght of sielnce.